Animal Learning & Behavior

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 46–65 | Cite as

Inhibitory associations between neutral stimuli: A comparative approach

Article

Abstract

In Experiments 1A, 1B, and 1C, nonhuman subjects, rats, received long alternated exposures to two compound flavors, AX and BX, that shared one flavor in common, X. Following this, conditioning of an aversion to A was sufficient to establish B as a conditioned inhibitor of the aversive unconditioned stimulus, passing both summation and retardation tests. Two additional experiments (Experiments 2 and 3) expanded the generality of these results to humans, using similar designs but an auditory discrimination learning task. A set of notes sequentially presented served as cues and fictitious composers served as outcomes. Both summation and retardation effects were found (Experiments 2 and 3, respectively). Experiment 4 then sought to clarify the mechanism underlying these effects. The results are discussed within several theoretical frameworks, most centrally the McLaren, Kaye, and Mackintosh (1989) theory of perceptual learning.

References

  1. Arcediano, F., Ortega, N., &Matute, H. (1996). A behavioural preparation for the study of human Pavlovian conditioning.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,49B, 270–283.Google Scholar
  2. Artigas, A. A., &Chamizo, V. D. (1994). Efectos de la preexposición a un sabor más o menos complejo en la adquisición de una aversión y en la generalización a un segundo sabor [Effects of preexposure to a more or less complex flavor in the acquisition of an aversion and in generalization to a second flavor].Psicológica,15, 85–99.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, C. H., &Mackintosh, N. J. (1999). Comparison and contrast as a mechanism of perceptual learning?Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,52B, 253–272.Google Scholar
  4. Bennett, C. H., Scahill, V. L., Griffiths, D. P., &Mackintosh, N. J. (1999). The role of inhibitory associations in perceptual learning.Animal Learning & Behavior,27, 333–345.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, C. H., Wills, S. J., Wells, J. O., &Mackintosh, N. J. (1994). Reduced generalization following preexposure: Latent inhibition of common elements or a difference in familiarity?Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes,20, 232–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Catena, A., Maldonado, A, &Cándido, A. (1998). The effect of the frequency of judgment and the type of trials on covariation learning.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,24, 481–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chamizo, V. D., &Mackintosh, N. J. (1989). Latent learning and latent inhibition in maze discriminations.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,41B, 21–31.Google Scholar
  8. Cleeremans, A. (1997). Sequence learning in a dual-stimulus setting.Psychological Research,60, 72–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Colle, H.A., &Welsh, A. (1976). Acoustic masking in primary memory.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,15, 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dickinson, A., &Burke, J. (1996). Within compound associations mediate the retrospective revaluation of causality judgements.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,49B, 60–80.Google Scholar
  11. Dwyer, D.M., Mackintosh, N. J., &Boakes, R. A. (1998). Simultaneous activation of the representations of absent cues results in the formation of excitatory association between them.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes,24, 163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Espinet, A., Iraola, J. A., Bennett, C. H., &Mackintosh, N. J. (1995). Inhibitory associations between neutral stimuli in flavoraversion conditioning.Animal Learning & Behavior,23, 361–368.Google Scholar
  13. Frensch, P.A., &Miner, C. S. (1994). Effects of presentation rate and individual differences in short-term memory capacity on an indirect measure of serial learning.Memory & Cognition,22, 95–110.Google Scholar
  14. Graham, S. (1999). Retrospective revaluation and inhibitory associations: Does perceptual learning modulate our perception of the contingencies between events?Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,52B, 159–185.Google Scholar
  15. Hall, G. (1991).Perceptual and associative learning. Oxford: Clarendon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hall, G. (1996). Learning about associatively activated stimulus representations: Implications for acquired equivalence and perceptual learning.Animal Learning & Behavior,24, 233–255.Google Scholar
  17. Harris, J.A., &Westbrook, R. F. (1998). Retroactive revaluation of an odor-taste association.Animal Learning & Behavior,26, 326–335.Google Scholar
  18. Holland, P. C. (1981). Acquisition of representation-mediated conditioned food aversions.Learning & Motivation,12, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Holland, P. C. (1990). Event representation in Pavlovian conditioning.Cognition,37, 105–131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Honey, R.C., Bateson, P., &Horn, G. (1994). The role of stimulus comparison in perceptual learning: An investigation with the domestic chick.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,47B, 83–103.Google Scholar
  21. Jiménez, L., &Méndez, C. (1999). Which attention is needed for implicit sequence learning?Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,25, 236–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones, D. M. (1993). Objects, streams and threads of auditory attention. In A. D. Baddeley & L. Weiskrantz (Eds.),Attention: Selection, awareness and control (pp. 87–103). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Larkin, M. J. W., Aitken, M. R. F., &Dickinson, A. (1998). Retrospective revaluation of causal judgments under positive and negative contingencies.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,24, 1331–1352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leonard, S., &Hall, G. (1999). Representation-mediated inhibitory learning in the conditioned-suppression procedure.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,52B, 145–158.Google Scholar
  25. Mackintosh, N. J., Kaye, H., &Bennett, C. H. (1991). Perceptual learning in flavour aversion conditioning.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,43B, 297–322.Google Scholar
  26. Matute, H., Arcediano, F., &Miller, R. R. (1996). Test question modulates cue competition between causes and between effects.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,22, 182–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McCleland, J. L., &Rumelhart, D. E. (1985). Distributed memory and the representation of general and specific information.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,141, 159–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McLaren, I. P. L., Kaye, H., &Mackintosh, N. J. (1989). An associative theory of the representation of stimuli. In R. G. M. Morris (Ed.),Parallel distributed processing: Implications for psychology and neurobiology (pp. 102–130). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. McLaren, I. P. L., &Mackintosh, N. J. (2000). An elemental model of associative learning: Latent inhibition and perceptual learning.Animal Learning & Behavior,28, 211–246.Google Scholar
  30. Miller, R. R., &Matute, H. (1996). Biological significance in forward and backward blocking: Resolution of a discrepancy between animal conditioning and human causal judgment.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,125, 370–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Miller, R. R., &Matzel, L. D. (1988). The comparator hypothesis: A response rule for the expression of associations. In G. H. Bower (Ed.),The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 22, pp. 51–92). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  32. Peris, J. M. (1990, June).Sobre un modelo de memoria asociativa [On a model of associative memory]. Paper presented at the 2nd Congress of the Sociedad Española de PsicologÍa Comparada, San Sebastián.Google Scholar
  33. Pineño, O., Ortega, N., &Matute, H. (2000). The relative activation of the associations modulates interference between elementallytrained cues.Learning & Motivation,31, 128–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Prados, J., Chamizo, V. D., &Mackintosh, N. J. (1999). Latent inhibition and perceptual learning in a swimming pool navigation task.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes,25, 37–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Rescorla, R.A. (1969). Conditioned inhibition.Psychological Bulletin,72, 77–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rescorla, R.A., &Cunningham, C. L. (1978). Within-compound flavor associations.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes,2, 267–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rescorla, R.A., &Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. In A. H. Black & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.),Classical conditioning II: Current research and theory (pp. 64–99). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  38. Rizley, R.C., &Rescorla, R.A. (1972). Associations in second-order conditioning and sensory preconditioning.Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology,81, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rodrigo, T., Chamizo, V.D., McLaren, I. P. L., &Mackintosh, N. J. (1994). Effects of preexposure to the same or different pattern of extra-maze cues on subsequent extra-maze discrimination.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,47B, 15–26.Google Scholar
  40. Sansa, J., Chamizo, V. D., &Mackintosh, N. J. (1996). Aprendizaje perceptivo en discriminaciones espaciales [Perceptual learning in spatial discriminations].Psicológica,17, 279–295.Google Scholar
  41. Savastano, H. I., Cole, R. P., Barnet, R. C., &Miller, R. R. (1999). Reconsidering conditioned inhibition.Learning & Motivation,30, 101–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schneider, W., &Shiffrin, R. M. (1997). Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search and attention.Psychological Review,84, 1–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shanks, D. R. (1985). Forward and backward blocking in human contingency judgment.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,37B, 1–21.Google Scholar
  44. Shanks, D. R., &Dickinson, A. (1987). Associative accounts of causality judgment. In G. H. Bower (Ed.),The psychology of learning and motivation(Vol. 21, pp. 229–261). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  45. Shanks, D. R., &Dickinson, A. (1991). Instrumental judgment and performance under variations in action-outcome contingency and contiguity.Memory & Cognition,19, 353–360.Google Scholar
  46. Shanks, D. R., &St. John, M. F. (1994). Characteristics of dissociable human learning systems.Behavioral & Brain Sciences,17, 367–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stadler, M. A. (1995). Role of attention in implicit learning.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,21, 674–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Symonds, S., &Hall, G. (1995). Perceptual learning in flavour aversion conditioning: Roles of stimulus comparison and latent inhibition of common stimulus elements.Learning & Motivation,26, 203–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van Hamme, L. J., &Wasserman, E. A. (1994). Cue competition in causality judgements: The role of non-representation of compound stimulus elements.Learning & Motivation,25, 127–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wagner, A. R. (1981). SOP: A model of automatic memory processing in animal behavior. In N. E. Spear & R. R. Miller (Eds.),Information processing in animals: Memory mechanisms (pp. 5–47). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  51. Wasserman, E. A. (1993). Comparative cognition: Toward an understanding of cognition in behavior.Psychological Science,4, 156–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Williams, D.A., Overmier, J. B., &Lolordo, V.M. (1992). A reevaluation of Rescorla’s early dictums about Pavlovian conditioned inhibition.Psychological Bulletin,111, 275–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yin, H., Barnet, R. C., &Miller, R. R. (1994). Second-order conditioning and Pavlovian conditioned inhibition: Operational similarities and differences.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes,20, 419–428.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Young, M. E. (1995). On the origin of personal causal theories.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,2, 83–104.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departament de Psicologia BàsicaUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Universitat Politècnica de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations