Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics

, Volume 72, Issue 2, pp 279–284 | Cite as

The involuntary capture of attention by novel feature pairings: A study of voice—location integration in auditory sensory memory

  • Fabrice B. R. Parmentier
  • Murray T. Maybery
  • Jane  Elsley
Brief Reports
  • 387 Downloads

Abstract

Past researchers of the integration of information in memory have typically required participants to attend to and/or commit to memory the stimuli conveying distinct features, rendering difficult the examination of whether the maintenance of the feature pairings can occur involuntarily. To address this issue, the integration of voice and location information in auditory sensory memory was measured using a cross-modal oddball task, in which task-irrelevant auditory deviants are known to capture attention in an involuntary fashion. Participants categorized visual digits presented shortly after to-be-ignored sounds. These sounds consisted in the same phoneme played simultaneously in both ears but in different voices (female in one ear, male in the other). On most trials, the pairing of voice to location was constant (standard sound). On rare and unpredictable trials, the voices swapped locations (deviant sound). In line with past work on attention capture by auditory novelty, the participants were significantly slower to judge the visual digits following the deviant sound, indicating the involuntary encoding of the links between voice and location in auditory memory. These results suggest that voices and locations are integrated in memory and that this binding occurs in conditions in which participants do not intend to commit any information to memory.

References

  1. Ahveninen, J., Jääskeläinen, I. P., Raij, T., Bonmassar, G., Devore, S., Hämäläinen, M., et al. (2006). Task-modulated “what” and “where” pathways in human auditory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 14608–14613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, R. J., Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (2006). Is the binding of visual features in working memory resource-demanding? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 298–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrés, P., Parmentier, F. B. R., & Escera, C. (2006). The effect of age on involuntary capture of attention by irrelevant sounds: A test of the frontal hypothesis of aging. Neuropsychologia, 44, 2564–2568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anourova, I., Rämä, P., Alho, K., Koivusalo, S., Kalmari, J., & Carlson, S. (1999). Selective interference reveals dissociation between auditory memory for location and pitch. NeuroReport, 10, 3543–3547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnott, S. R., Binns, M. A., Grady, C. L., & Alain, C. (2004). Assessing the auditory dual-pathway model in humans. NeuroImage, 22, 401–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berti, S., Roeber, U., & Schröger, E. (2004). Bottom-up influences on working memory: Behavioral and electrophysiological distraction varies with distractor strength. Experimental Psychology, 51, 249–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradlow, A. R., Nygaard, L. C., & Pisoni, D. B. (1999). Effects of talker, rate, and amplitude variation on recognition memory for spoken word. Perception & Psychophysics, 61, 206–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clément, S., Demany, L., & Semal, C. (1999). Memory for pitch versus memory for loudness. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 106, 2805–2811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cowan, N., Winkler, I., Teder, W., & Näätänen, R. (1993). Shortand long-term prerequisites of the mismatch negativity in the auditory event-related potential (ERP). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 19, 909–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Craik, F. I. M., & Kirsner, K. (1974). The effect of speaker’s voice on word recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 274–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elsley, J. V., & Parmentier, F. B. R. (2009a). Is binding in visuospatial working memory impaired by a concurrent memory load? Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  12. Elsley, J. V., & Parmentier, F. B. R. (2009b). Is verbal-spatial binding in working memory impaired by a concurrent memory load? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1696–1705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Elsley, J. V., Parmentier, F. B. R., & Maybery, M. T. (2009). Feature binding within visuo-spatial working memory: Asymmetry between shape and location encoding. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  14. Escera, C., Yago, E., & Alho, K. (2001). Electrical responses reveal the temporal dynamics of brain events during involuntary attention switching. European Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 877–883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fifer, W. P., & Moon, C. M. (1994). The role of mother’s voice in the organization of brain functions in the newborn. Acta Paediatrica, 83, 86–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Friedman, D., Cycowicz, Y. M., & Gaeta, H. (2001). The novelty P3: An event-related brain potential (ERP) sign of the brain’s evaluation of novelty. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 25, 355–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gajewski, D. A., & Brockmole, J. R. (2006). Feature bindings endure without attention: Evidence from an explicit recall task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 581–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goh, W. D. (2005). Talker variability and recognition memory: Instancespecific and voice-specific effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 31, 40–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hommel, B. (2004). Event files: Feature binding in and across perception and action. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 494–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jiang, Y., Olson, I. R., & Chun, M. M. (2000). Organization of visual short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory & Cognition, 26, 683–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnson, J. S., Hollingworth, A., & Luck, S. J. (2008). The role of attention in the maintenance of feature bindings in visual short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 34, 41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Levy, D. A., Granot, R., & Bentin, S. (2001). Processing specificity for human voice stimuli: Electrophysiological evidence. NeuroReport, 12, 2653–2657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Maybery, M. T., Clissa, P. J., Parmentier, F. B. R., Leung, D., Harsa, G., Fox, A. M., & Jones, D. M. (2009). Binding of verbal and spatial features in auditory working memory. Journal of Memory & Language, 61, 112–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mishkin, M., Ungerleider, L. G., & Macko, K. A. (1983). Object visuo and spatial vision: Two cortical pathways. Trends in Neurosciences, 6, 414–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mitchell, K. J., Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L., Mather, M., & D’Esposito, M. (2000). Aging and reflective processes of working memory: Binding and test load deficits. Psychology & Aging, 15, 527–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Näätänen, R., & Winkler, I. (1999). The concept of auditory stimulus representation in cognitive neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 826–859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Olson, I. R., & Marshuetz, C. (2005). Remembering “what” brings along “where” in visual working memory. Perception & Psychophysics, 67, 185–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Parmentier, F. B. R. (2008). Toward a cognitive model of distraction by auditory novelty: The role of involuntary attention capture and semantic processing. Cognition, 109, 345–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Parmentier, F. B. R., Elford, G., Escera, C., Andrés, P., & San Miguel, I. (2008). The cognitive locus of distraction by acoustic novelty in the cross-modal oddball task. Cognition, 106, 408–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Prabhakaran, V., Narayanan, K., Zhao, Z., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2000). Integration of diverse information in working memory within the frontal lobe. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 85–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rämä, P., Poremba, A., Sala, J. B., Yee, L., Malloy, M., Mishkin, M., & Courtney, S. M. (2004). Dissociable functional cortical typologies for working memory maintenance of voice identity and location. Cerebral Cortex, 14, 768–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rauschecker, J. P., & Tian, B. (2000). Mechanisms and streams for processing of “what” and “where” in auditory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97, 11800–11806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rauschecker, J. P., Tian, B., & Hauser, M. (1995). Processing of complex sounds in the macaque nonprimary auditory cortex. Science, 268, 111–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Roeber, U., Berti, S., Widmann, A., & Schröger, E. (2005). Response repetition vs. response change modulates behavioral and electrophysiological effects of distraction. Cognitive Brain Research, 22, 451–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Romanski, L. M., Tian, B., Fritz, J., Mishkin, M., Goldman- Rakic, P. S., & Rauschecker, J. P. (1999). Dual streams of auditory afferents target multiple domains in the primate prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 1131–1136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schröger, E. (1996). Interaural time and level differences: Integrated or separated processing? Hearing Research, 96, 191–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sussman, E., Gomes, H., Nousak, J. M., Ritter, W., & Vaughan, H. G., Jr. (1998). Feature conjunctions and auditory sensory memory. Brain Research, 793, 95–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Takegata, R., Brattico, E., Tervaniemi, M., Varyagina, O., Näätänen, R., & Winkler, I. (2005). Preattentive representation of feature conjunctions for concurrent spatially distributed auditory objects. Cognitive Brain Research, 25, 169–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Van Valkenburg, D., Maybery, M. T., Leung, D., Kubovy, M., Parmentier, F. B. R., & Jones, D. M. (2009). The binding of pitch and loudness features in auditory memory. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  40. Wheeler, M. E., & Treisman, A. M. (2002). Binding in short-term visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131, 48–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Winkler, I., & Cowan, N. (2005). From sensory to long-term memory. Evidence from auditory memory reactivation studies. Experimental Psychology, 52, 3–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Winkler, I., Cowan, N., Csépe V., Czigler, I., & Näätänen, R. (1996). Interactions between transient and long-term auditory memory as reflected by the mismatch negativity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 8, 403–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Winkler, I., Czigler, I., Sussman, E., Horváth J., & Balázs, L. (2005). Preattentive binding of auditory and visual stimulus features. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 320–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wolfe, J. M., & Bennett, S. C. (1997). Preattentive object files: Shapeless bundles of basic features. Vision Research, 37, 25–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wolff, C., & Schröger, E. (2001). Human pre-attentive auditory change-detection with single, double, and triple deviations as revealed by mismatch negativity additivity. Neuroscience Letters, 311, 37–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zmigrod, S., & Hommel, B. (2009). Auditory event file: Integrating auditory perception and action planning. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 71, 352–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabrice B. R. Parmentier
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Murray T. Maybery
    • 2
  • Jane  Elsley
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of the Balearic IslandsPalmaSpain
  2. 2.University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  3. 3.University of PlymouthPlymouthEngland

Personalised recommendations