Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics

, Volume 71, Issue 7, pp 1607–1617 | Cite as

Visual direction constancy across eyeblinks

  • J. Stephen Higgins
  • David E. Irwin
  • Ranxiao Frances Wang
  • Laura E. Thomas
Research Articles

Abstract

When a visual target is displaced during a saccade, the perception of its displacement is suppressed. Its movement can usually only be detected if the displacement is quite large. This suppression can be eliminated by introducing a short blank period after the saccade and before the target reappears in a new location. This has been termed the blanking effect and has been attributed to the use of otherwise ignored extraretinal information. We examined whether similar effects occur with eyeblinks and other visual distractions. We found that suppression of displacement perception can also occur due to a blink (both immediately prior to the blink and during the blink), and that introducing a blank period after a blink reduces the displacement suppression in much the same way as after a saccade. The blanking effect does not occur when other visual distractions are used. This provides further support for the conclusion that the blanking effect arises from extraretinal signals about eye position.

References

  1. Bischof, N., & Kramer, E. (1968). Untersuchungen und überlegungen zur Richtungswahrnehmung bei willkürlichen sakkadischen Augenbewegungen. Psychologische Forschung, 32, 185–218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bour, L. J., Aramideh, M., & Ongerboer de Visser, B. W. (2000). Neurophysiological aspects of eye and eyelid movements during blinking in humans. Journal of Neurophysiology, 83, 166–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bridgeman, B., Hendry, D., & Stark, L. (1975). Failure to detect displacement of the visual world during saccadic eye movements. Vision Research, 15, 719–722.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bridgeman, B., Lewis, S., Heit, G., & Nagle, M. (1979). Relation between cognitive and motor-oriented systems of visual position perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 5, 692–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bridgeman, B., Van der Heijden, A. H. C., & Velichkovsky, B. M. (1994). A theory of visual stability across saccadic eye movements. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 17, 247–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bristow, D., Frith, C., & Rees, G. (2005). Two distinct neural effects of blinking on human visual processing. NeuroImage, 27, 136–145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bristow, D., Haynes, J. D., Sylvester, R., Frith, C. D., & Rees, G. (2005). Blinking suppresses the neural response to unchanging retinal stimulation. Current Biology, 15, 1296–1300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Collewijn, H., van der Steen, J., & Steinman, R. M. (1985). Human eye movements associated with blinks and prolonged eyelid closure. Journal of Neurophysiology, 54, 11–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Currie, C., McConkie, G. W., Carlson-Radvansky, L. A., & Irwin, D. E. (2000). The role of the saccade target object in the perception of a visually stable world. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, 673–683.Google Scholar
  10. Deubel, H. (2004). Localization of targets across saccades: Role of landmark objects. Visual Cognition, 11, 173–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deubel, H., Bridgeman, B., & Schneider, W. X. (1998). Immediate postsaccadic information mediates space constancy. Vision Research, 38, 3147–3159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Deubel, H., Bridgeman, B., & Schneider, W. X. (2004). Different effects of eyelid blinks and target blanking on saccadic suppression of displacement. Perception & Psychophysics, 66, 772–778.Google Scholar
  13. Deubel, H., & Schneider, W. X. (1994). Can man bridge a gap? Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 17, 259–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deubel, H., Schneider, W. X., & Bridgeman, B. (1996). Postsaccadic target blanking prevents saccadic suppression of image displacement. Vision Research, 36, 985–996.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dodge, R. (1900). Visual perception during eye movement. Psychological Review, 7, 454–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Erdmann, B., & Dodge, R. (1898). Psychologische untersuchungen uber das lesen auf experimenteller grundlage. Halle, Germany: Niemeyer.Google Scholar
  17. Evinger, C., Shaw, M. D., Peck, C. K., Manning, K. A., & Baker, R. (1984). Blinking and associated eye movements in human, guinea pigs and rabbits. Journal of Neurophysiology, 52, 323–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gibson, J. J. (1950). The perception of the visual world. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  19. Gibson, J. J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  20. Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  21. Haber, R. N. (1983). The impending demise of the icon: A critique of the concept of iconic storage in visual information processing. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 6, 1–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hollingworth, A., Richard, A. M., & Luck, S. J. (2008). Understanding the function of visual short-term memory: Transsaccadic memory, object correspondence, and gaze correction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137, 163–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Irwin, D. E., McConkie, G. W., Carlson-Radvansky, L. A., & Currie, C. (1994). A localist evaluation solution for visual stability across saccades. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 17, 265–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kleiser, R., Seitz, R. J., & Krekelberg, B. (2004). Neural correlates of saccadic suppression in humans. Current Biology, 14, 386–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. MacKay, D. M. (1973). Visual stability and voluntary eye movements. In R. Jung (Ed.), Handbook of sensory physiology (Vol. 7, pp. 307–332). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Manning, K. A., Riggs, L. A., & Komenda, J. K. (1983). Reflex eyeblinks and visual suppression. Perception & Psychophysics, 34, 250–256.Google Scholar
  27. Matin, L. (1986). Visual localization and eye movements. In K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, & J. P. Thomas (Eds.), Handbook of perception and human performance (Vol. 1, pp. 20–1 to 20-45). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Matin, L., Picoult, E., Stevens, J. K., Edwards, M. W., Jr., Young, E., & MacArthur, R. (1982). Oculoparalytic illusion: Visual-field dependent spatial mislocations by humans partially paralyzed with curare. Science, 216, 198–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. O’Regan, K., Deubel, H., Clark, J. J., & Rensink, R. A. (2000). Picture changes during blinks: Looking without seeing and seeing without looking. Visual Cognition, 7, 191–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ponder, E., & Kennedy, W. P. (1927). On the act of blinking. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology, 18, 89–110.Google Scholar
  31. Prablanc, C., & Martin, O. (1992). Automatic control during hand reaching at undetected two-dimensional target displacements. Journal of Neurophysiology, 67, 455–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Riggs, L. A., Volkmann, F. C., & Moore, R. K. (1981). Suppression of the blackout due to blinks. Vision Research, 21, 1075–1079.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Sherrington, C. S. (1918). Observations on the sensual role of the proprioceptive nerve supply of the extrinsic eye muscles. Brain, 41, 332–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sperry, R.W. (1950). Neural basis of the spontaneous optokinetic response produced by visual inversion. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 43, 482–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thomas, L. E., & Irwin, D. E. (2006). Voluntary eyeblinks disrupt iconic memory. Perception & Psychophysics, 68, 475–488.Google Scholar
  36. Volkmann, F. C. (1986). Human visual suppression. Vision Research, 26, 1401–1416.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Volkmann, F. C., Riggs, L. A., Ellicott, A. G., & Moore, R. K. (1982). Measurements of visual suppression during opening, closing and blinking of the eyes. Vision Research, 22, 991–996.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Volkmann, F. C., Riggs, L. A., & Moore, R. K. (1980). Eyeblinks and visual suppression. Science, 207, 900–902.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Von Holst, E., & Mittelstaedt, H. (1971). The principle of reafference: Interactions between the central nervous system and the peripheral organs. In P. C. Dodwell (Ed.), Perceptual processing: Stimulus equivalence and pattern recognition (pp. 41–47). New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
  40. Von Holst, E., & Mittelstaedt, H. (1980). The reafference principle. In C. R. Gallistel (Ed.), The organization of action (pp. 176–207). New York: Wiley. (Original work published 1950)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Stephen Higgins
    • 1
  • David E. Irwin
    • 1
  • Ranxiao Frances Wang
    • 1
  • Laura E. Thomas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of IllinoisChampaign

Personalised recommendations