Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 28–32 | Cite as

Effects of vitamin D on cardiovascular disease risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome women with vitamin D deficiency

  • H. Rahimi-Ardabili
  • B. Pourghassem GargariEmail author
  • L. Farzadi
Original Articles


Background: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among women, including patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some studies have suggested that vitamin D may have a role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is very limited data on the vitamin D effect on CVD risk factors in women with PCOS and vitamin D deficiency. Aim: To investigate the effect of cholecalciferol on CVD risk factors in PCOS women with vitamin D deficiency. Methods: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blinded trial. Fifty PCOS women with vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D, no.=24; placebo, no.=26) aged 20–40 yr, were randomly assigned to receive 3 oral capsules of 50, 000 IU vitamin D3 or a placebo (one capsule every 20 days) for two months. Serum vitamin D, PTH, lipid profile, apolipoprotein AI (APO-AI), and high sensitive C- reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured at baseline and after treatment. Results: Vitamin D3 therapy in PCOS patients, increased serum vitamin D (7.00±2.80 to 22.9±6.14 ng/ml), decreased serum total cholesterol (196.6±32.8 to 179.1±34.1 mg/dl), triglyceride (156.8±73.0 to 130.5±56.5 mg/dl), and VLDL (31.4±14.6 to 26.1 ±11.3 mg/dl) levels significantly (p<0.05), but it did not affect serum HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, APO-AI, and hs-CRP concentrations. There was no change in variables in the placebo group. Conclusions: Our study showed that vitamin D3 therapy had beneficial effects on some CVD risk factors in PCOS patients with vitamin D deficiency. The trial was registered at (IRCT138904113140N2).


Cardiovascular disease hs-CRP lipid profile polycystic ovary syndrome vitamin D3 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Carr BR, Bradshow KD. Disorder of the ovary and female reproductive tract. In: Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, et al. (eds) Harrison’s principal of internal medicine, 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2005, 2198–211.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rotterdam ESHRE-ASRM Sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod 2004, 19: 41–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Giallauria F, Orio F, Palomba S, Lombardi G, Colao A, Vigorito C. Cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Cardiovasc Med 2008, 9: 987–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Dunaif A. Prevalence and predictors of dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Med 2001, 111: 607–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kelly CC, Lyall H, Petrie JR, Gould GW, Connell G M.C, Sattar N. Low grade chronic inflammation in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001, 86: 2453–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 2000, 342: 836–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pérez-López FR. Vitamin D metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 2009, 62: 248–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Auwerx J, Bouillon R, Kesteloot H. Relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, apolipoprotein A-I, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Aterioscler Thromb 1992, 12: 671–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Martins D, Wolf M, Pan D, et al. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med 2007, 167: 1159–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Major GC, Alarie F, Doré J, Phouttama S, Tremblay A. Supplementation with calcium + vitamin D enhances the beneficial effect of weight loss on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2007, 85: 54–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zittermann A, Schleithoff SS, Koerfer R. Putting cardiovascular disease and vitamin D insufficiency into perspective. Br J Nutr 2005, 94: 483–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Timms PM, Mannan N, Hitman GA, et al. Circulating MMP9, vitamin D and variation in the TIMP-1 response with VDR genotype: mechanisms for inflammatory damage in chronic disorders? QJM 2002, 95: 787–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heshmat R, Mohammad K, Majdzadeh SR, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in Iran: A multi-center study among different urban areas. Iranian J Publ Helath 2008, 1: 72–8.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kotsa K, Yavropoulou PM, Anastasiou O, Yovos JG. Role of vitamin D treatment in glucose metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2009, 92: 1053–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wehr E, Pieber TR, Obermayer-Pietsch B. Effect of vitamin D3 treatment on glucose metabolism and menstrual frequency in PCOS women-a pilot study. J Endocrinol Invest 2011, 34: 757–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Holick MF, Chen TC. Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. Am J Clin Nutr 2008, 87: 180S–6S.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kimlin MG. Geographic location and vitamin D synthesis. Mol Aspects Med 2008, 29: 453–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Timmerman JC. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Nutr 2011, 30: 167–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Selimoglu H, Duran C, Kiyici S, et al. The effect of vitamin D replacement therapy on insulin resistance and androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest 2010, 33: 234–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Witham MD, Dove FJ, Dryburgh M, Sugden JA, Morris AD, Struthers AD. The effect of different dose of vitamin D(3) on markers of vascular health in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetologia 2010, 53: 2112–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nagpal J, Pande JN, Bhartia A. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the short-term effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy, middle-aged, centrally obese men. Diabet Med 2009, 26: 19–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jorde R, Figenschau Y. Supplementation with cholecalciferol does not improve glycaemic control in diabetic subjects with normal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Eur J Nutr 2009, 48: 349–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maki KC, Rubin MR, Wong LG, McManus JF, Jensen CD, Lawless A. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease risk markers in subjects with elevated waist circumference. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2011, 62: 318–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    von Hurst PR, Stonehouse W, Coad J. Vitamin D supplementation reduces insulin resistance in South Asian women living in New Zealand who are insulin resistant and vitamin D deficient — a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr 2010, 103: 549–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Carbone LD, Rosenberg EW, Tolley EA, et al. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, cholesterol, and ultraviolet irradiation. Metabolism 2008, 57: 741–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zittermann A, Frisch S, Berthold HK, et al. Vitamin D supplementation enhances the beneficial effects of weight loss on cardiovascular disease risk markers. Am J Clin Nutr 2009, 89: 1321–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bonakdaran S, Ayatollahi H, Mojahedi MJ, Sharifipoor F, Shakeri M. Impact of treatment with oral calcitriol on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia(s) in hemodialysis patients. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2008, 19: 942–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Osmancevic A, Nilsen LT, Landin-Wilhelmsen K, et al. Effect of climate therapy at Gran Canaria on vitamin D production, blood glucose and lipids in patients with psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009, 23: 1133–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cho HJ, Kang HC, Choi SA, Ju YC, Lee HS, Park HJ. The possible role of Ca2+ on the activation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in rat hepatocytes. Biol Pharm Bull 2005, 28: 1418–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kautzky-Willer A, Pacini G, Niederle B, Schernthaner G, Prager R. Insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and hepatic insulin extraction in primary hyperparathyroidism before and after surgery. Clin Endocrinol 1992, 37: 147–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    McLaughlin T, Reaven G, Abbasi F, et al. Is there a simple way to identify insulin resistant individuals at increased risk of cardiovascular disease? AM J Card 2005, 96: 399–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    van den Berghe G, van Roosbroeck D, Vanhove P, Wouters PJ, De Pourcq L, Bouillon R. Bone turnover in prolonged critical illness: effect of vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003, 88: 4623–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Muller K, Haahr PM, Diamant M, Rieneck K, Kharazmi A, Bendtzen K. 1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits cytokine production by human blood monocytes at the post-transcriptional level. Cytokine 1992, 4: 506–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Heinrich PC, Castell JV, Andus T. Interleukin-6 and the acute phase response. Biochem J 1990, 265: 621–36.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Rahimi-Ardabili
    • 1
  • B. Pourghassem Gargari
    • 2
    Email author
  • L. Farzadi
    • 3
  1. 1.Students’ Research CommitteeTabrizIran
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Faculty of Health and NutritionNutrition Research CenterTabrizIran
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of MedicineTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

Personalised recommendations