Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 468–474 | Cite as

The 2-minute step test is independently associated with cognitive function in older adults with heart failure

  • Michael L. AloscoEmail author
  • Mary Beth Spitznagel
  • Naftali Raz
  • Ronald Cohen
  • Lawrence H. Sweet
  • Lisa H. Colbert
  • Richard Josephson
  • Donna Waechter
  • Joel Hughes
  • Jim Rosneck
  • John Gunstad
Original Article


Background and aims: Cognitive impairment is common in persons with heart failure (HF), and measures like the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) are known to correspond to level of impairment. The 2-minute step test (2MST) has been suggested as a more practical alternative to the 6MWT, though no study has examined whether it is associated with cognitive impairment in persons with HF. This study examined whether the 2MST is associated with cognitive function in older adults with HF. Methods: Older adults with HF (n=145; 68.97±9.31 yrs) completed the 2MST and a neuropsychological test battery that assessed function in multiple cognitive domains. Results: Consistent with past work, HF patients exhibited high rates of cognitive impairment. Hierarchical regression analyses adjusting for demographic and medical characteristics found that the 2MST accounted for unique variance in global cognitive function (ΔR2=0.09, p<0.001), executive function (ΔR2=0.03, p<0.05), and language (ΔR2=0.10, p<0.001). A trend emerged for attention (ΔR2=0.02, p=0.09). Follow-up tests indicated that better 2MST performance was significantly correlated with better global cognitive function, attention, executive, and language test performance. Conclusion: The current results indicate that the 2MST is associated with cognitive function in older adults with HF. Further work is needed to clarify underlying mechanisms for this association and the value of implementing the 2MST during routine visits.

Key words

Heart failure 2-minute step test cognitive function older adults 


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Copyright information

© Springer Internal Publishing Switzerland 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael L. Alosco
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mary Beth Spitznagel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Naftali Raz
    • 3
  • Ronald Cohen
    • 4
  • Lawrence H. Sweet
    • 5
  • Lisa H. Colbert
    • 6
  • Richard Josephson
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
  • Donna Waechter
    • 2
  • Joel Hughes
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jim Rosneck
    • 2
  • John Gunstad
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyKent State UniversityKentUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, Summa Health SystemAkron City HospitalAkronUSA
  3. 3.Institute of GerontologyWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA
  4. 4.Department of CardiologyRhode Island Medical CenterProvidenceUSA
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry and Human BehaviorBrown Medical SchoolProvidenceUSA
  6. 6.Department of KinesiologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  7. 7.University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Department of MedicineClevelandUSA
  8. 8.Harrington-McLaughlin Heart & Vascular InstituteClevelandUSA
  9. 9.Case Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA

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