Skip to main content

Relationship between the absorption of 5-hydroxytryptophan from an integrated diet, by means of Griffonia simplicifolia extract, and the effect on satiety in overweight females after oral spray administration

Abstract

The management of overweight may include the use of dietary supplements targeted to counter the feeling of hunger. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial has been performed in 20 overweight females. These subjects were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with either an extract from Griffonia Simplicifolia (10 subjects) or a placebo (10 matched subjects) for 4-weeks, in conjunction with a personalised reduced calorie diet. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, by the assessment of 24-h urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels (5-HIAA), of 1-month administration of a dietary supplement containing 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) from botanical extracts in healthy, overweight females. Secondary endpoints were the assessment of sensation of appetite (by Haber score), body composition, and severity of binge eating. The supplemented group had a significant increase of 24-h urinary 5-HIAA levels (p<0.001), and a decrease in Haber score (p<0.001) while the placebo group did not show significant changes. With regard to changes in body composition, statistically significant differences between the treatment groups were found for the mean change in BMI, suprailiac skinfold thicknesses, arm circumference and hip circumference. Other parameters were found to be similar in the treated and in the placebo groups. In conclusion, this study shows that the 5-hydroxytryptophan present in the Griffonia extract, administered via spray to the oral cavity, is adequately absorbed, as confirmed by the increase in 24-h urinary 5-HIAA, and that the supplementation of the diet of overweight women with 5-hydroxytryptophan increases the feeling of satiety associated with a decrease in BMI.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Field AE, Coakley EH, Must A, et al. Impact of overweight on the risk of developing common chronic diseases during a 10-year period. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 1581–6.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Balazs A. Role of phytotherapy in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Orv Hetil 2010; 151: 763–73.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Blundell JE, Leshem MB. The effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan on food intake and on the anorexic action of amphetamine and fenfluramine. J Pharm Pharmacol 1975; 27: 3l–7.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Leibowitz SF. The role of serotonin in eating disorders. Drugs 1990; 39(Suppl 3): 33–48.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ashley DV, Coscina DV, Anderson GH. Selective decrease in protein intake following brain serotonin depletion. Life Sci 1979; 24: 973–84.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Pijl H, Koppeschaar HP, Cohen AF, et al. Evidence for brain serotonin-mediated control of carbohydrate consumption in normal weight and obese humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1993; 17: 513–20.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Cavaliere H, Medeiros-Neto G. The anorectic effect of increasing doses of L-trypthophan in obese patients. EatWeight Disord 1997; 2: 211–5.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Tuner EH, Loftis JM, Blackwell AD. Serotonin a la carte: supplementation with the serotonin precursor 5- hydroxytryptophan. Pharmacol Ther 2006; 109: 325–38.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Caballero B, Finer N, Wurtman RJ. Plasma amino acids and insulin levels in obesity: response to carbohydrate intake and tryptophan supplements. Metabolism 1988; 37: 672–6.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ashley DV, Fleury MO, Golay A, et al. Evidence for diminished brain 5-hydroxytryptamine biosynthesis in obese diabetic and non-diabetic humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 42: 1240–5.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Breum L, Rasmussen MH, Hilsted J, et al. Twenty-fourhour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 1112–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Breum L, Moller SE, Andersen T, et al. Long-term effect of dexfenfluramine on amino acid profiles and food selection in obese patients during weight loss. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996; 20: 147–53.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Gatti E, Porrini M, Noè D, et al. Plasma amino acid changes in obese patients on very low-calorie diets. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1994; 64: 81–5.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Goodwin GM, Cowen PJ, Fairburn CG, et al. Plasma concentrations of tryptophan and dieting. BMJ 1990; 300: 1499–500.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Wolfe BE, Metzger ED, Stollar C. The effects of dieting on plasma tryptophan concentration and food intake in healthy women. Physiol Behav 1997; 61: 537–41.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Attenburrow MJ, Williams C, Odontiadis J, et al. The effect of a nutritional source of tryptophan on dietinginduced changes in brain 5-HT function. Psychol Med 2003; 33: 1381–6.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Jeffery RW, Drewnowski A, Epstein LH, et al. Longterm maintenance of weight loss: current status. Health Psychol 2000; 19: 5–16.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Fernstrom JD. Role of precursor availability in control of monoamine biosynthesis in brain. Physiol Rev 1983; 63: 484–546.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Ceci F, Cangiano C, Cairella M, et al. The effects of oral 5-hydroxytryptophan administration on feeding behaviour in obese adult female subjects. J Neural Transm 1989; 76: 109–17.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Cangiano C, Ceci F, Cascino A, et al. Eating behaviour and adherence to dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects treated with 5-hydroxytryptophan. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56: 863–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Cangiano C, Laviano A, Del Ben M, et al. Effects of oral 5-hydroxy-tryptophan on energy intake and macronutrient selection in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; 22: 648–54.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Rondanelli M, Klersy C, Iadarola P, et al. Satiety and amino acid profile in overweight females after a new treatment using a natural plant extract sublingual spray formulation. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009; 33: 1174–82.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    American Psychiatric Association. Mood disorders. In: American Psychiatric Association (Ed) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Pub Inc, 1994, pp 317–45.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Haber GB, Heaton KW, Murphy D, et al. Depletion and disruption of dietary fibre. Effects on satiety, plasmaglucose, and serum-insulin. Lancet 1977; 2: 679–82.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Gormally J, Black S, Daston S, et al. The assessment of binge eating severity among obese persons. Addict Behav 1982; 7: 47–55.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Steer RA, Ball R, Ranieri WF, et al. Dimensions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in clinically depressed outpatients. J Clin Psychol 1999; 55: 117–28.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    World Health Organization. Energy and protein requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series No. 724. Geneva, Switzerland, 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Frisancho AR. New standards of weight and body composition by frame size and height for assessment of nutritional status of adults and the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 1984; 40: 808–19.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Udenfriend S, Titus E, Weissabach H. The identification of 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid in normal urine and a method for its assay. J Biol Chem 1955; 216: 449–505.

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Lemaire PA, Adosraku RK. An HPLC method for the direct assay of the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytrophan, in seeds of Griffonia simplicifolia. Phytochem Anal 2002; 13: 333–7.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Shan JJ, Rodgers K, Lai CT, et al. Challenges in natural health product research: The importance of standardization. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 2007; 50: 24–30.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Rothman RB. Treatment of obesity with “combination” pharmacotherapy. Am J Ther 2010; 17: 596–603.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Lima WP, Carnevali LC Jr, Eder R, et al. Lipid metabolism in trained rats: effect of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation. Clin Nutr 2005; 24: 1019–28.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Brinkhaus B, Lindner M, Schuppan D, et al. Chemical, pharmacological and clinical profile of the East Asian medical plant Centella asiatica. Phytomedicine 2000; 7: 427–48.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Schütz K, Carle R, Schieber A. Taraxacum — a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 107: 313–23.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Moglia A, Lanteri S, Comino C, et al. Stress-induced biosynthesis of dicaffeoylquinic acids in globe artichoke. J Agric Food Chem 2008; 56: 8641–9.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Naranjo CA, Tremblay LK, Busto WE. The role of the brain reward system in depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2001; 25: 781–823.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Rondanelli.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rondanelli, M., Opizzi, A., Faliva, M. et al. Relationship between the absorption of 5-hydroxytryptophan from an integrated diet, by means of Griffonia simplicifolia extract, and the effect on satiety in overweight females after oral spray administration. Eat Weight Disord 17, e22–e28 (2012). https://doi.org/10.3275/8165

Download citation

Key words

  • Overweight
  • dietary supplement
  • tryptophan
  • serotonin
  • 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid
  • 5-hydroxytryptophan
  • body weight