Journal of NeuroVirology

, Volume 15, Issue 5–6, pp 390–400 | Cite as

Measurement of soluble inflammatory mediators in cerebrospinal fluid of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients at distinct stages of infection by solid-phase protein array

  • Thorsten Nolting
  • Antje Lindecke
  • Eleni Koutsilieri
  • Matthias Maschke
  • Ingo-W. Husstedt
  • Sieghart Sopper
  • Olaf Stüve
  • Hans-Peter Hartung
  • Gabriele Arendt
  • Competence Network HIV/AIDS


The objective of this study was to evaluate immune cytokine expression in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) using a novel cytokine array assay. HIV-1 induces a condition resembling classical subcortical dementia, known as HAD. The immune mechanisms contributing to HAD have not been elucidated. Cytokine expression in CSF was determined by solid-phase protein array in 33 neurologically asymptomatic HIV-positive male patients and were compared to levels in non-HIV controls and patients with HAD. Neurological examinations and lumbar and venous punctures were conducted in all patients and controls. Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-10, were up-regulated in all treated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients independent of neurological status compared to controls. In contrast, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), IL-1α, IL-15, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were highly expressed in patients with HAD compared to undemented HIV-positive patients. These results show that solid-phase protein array can detect immunological changes in patients infected with HIV. Cytokine expression levels differ in different disease stages and in patients on different treatment paradigms. Pending further validation on a larger number of patients, this method may be a useful tool in CSF diagnostics and the longitudinal evaluation of patient with HAD.


chemokine cytokine HIV neuro-AIDS protein array 


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Copyright information

© Journal of NeuroVirology, Inc. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thorsten Nolting
    • 1
  • Antje Lindecke
    • 2
  • Eleni Koutsilieri
    • 3
  • Matthias Maschke
    • 4
  • Ingo-W. Husstedt
    • 5
  • Sieghart Sopper
    • 6
  • Olaf Stüve
    • 1
    • 7
  • Hans-Peter Hartung
    • 1
  • Gabriele Arendt
    • 1
  • Competence Network HIV/AIDS
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyHeinrich-Heine-University, University Hospital DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Biomedical Research Center (BMFZ)Heinrich-Heine-UniversityDuesseldorfGermany
  3. 3.Department of Virology and ImmunobiologyUniversity of WürzburgWürzburgGermany
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyUniversity Hospital of Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany
  5. 5.Department of NeurologyUniversity of MünsterMünsterGermany
  6. 6.German Primate CenterGöttingenGermany
  7. 7.University of Texas, Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

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