Features of Charging–Discharging of Supercapacitors
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We present the results of experimental investigations of supercapacitors produced by Panasonic using several methods, namely, measurements of temporal dependences of charging–discharging currents, cyclic dc charging, and cyclic voltammetry. The values of the internal resistance, static and dynamic capacitance, as well as their dependences on the bias voltage of the capacitors, have been determined. Measurements have shown that the initial stage of relaxation of current is well approximated by the exponential time dependence, and then transition to a powerlike dependence occurs. This well-known effect is explained on the basis of the allowance for specific transport properties of a porous fractal-type medium. These processes are adequately described by the fractional-differential model of anomalous diffusion. A weak dependence of relaxation curves on the voltage at low values of the latter (<3 V) and the change in the power-law exponent at elevated voltages (>3 V) is explained by the appearance of new percolation paths blocked at low charging voltages due to the presence of high-potential barriers. The internal resistance and the static capacitance have been determined by measuring the voltage across the supercapacitor in the mode of dc charging. These parameters have been shown to depend on the voltage applied to the capacitor. The dependence of the dynamic capacitance on the voltage has been determined using cyclic voltammetry. It has been shown that the capacitance depends not only on the voltage, but also on the prehistory of charging and discharging of the capacitor. Comparison of the experimental results and the published data on the models and equivalent circuits with passive R, L, and C elements allows one to conclude that such models and equivalent circuits can be applied only when explaining a limited number of phenomena, in particular, behavior at small relaxation times.
Keywordssupercapacitors decays current–voltage performances
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