The Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK) is the main supplier of new apple tree cultivars for the central part of Russia. Fifty-four zoned apple cultivars with different dates of maturing have been created at the institute and included into the State Register of Breeding Achievements. The reasons for a very long period from the beginning of the breeding process (hybridization) to the wide introduction of a cultivar into broad production are considered in this study. Examples of acceleration and intensification of the breeding process are presented. While it took 39–49 years (43 on average) from hybridization to transfer a cultivar to the State Register in the 1950s at VNIISPK, it took just 18–23 years (21 on average) in the 1980s–1990s. The techniques and methods for reducing this period are provided in this study. It was shown that the same period often passes from the inclusion of a cultivar into the State Register (zoning) until the introduction of a cultivar into wide production. For the reduction of this period, it was proposed that plots of small production will be made in the originating institution to test cultivars of 20–30 trees in each of three replicates (60–90 trees), including a new and control cultivar, while the cultivar it is simultaneously transferred to the State Register.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies involving animals or human participants performed by any of the authors.
Translated by V. Mittova
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Sedov, E.N. Intensification of the Breeding Process and Accelerating the Introduction of Apple Cultivars into Production. Russ. Agricult. Sci. 45, 524–528 (2019). https://doi.org/10.3103/S106836741906020X
- apple tree
- breeding intensification
- cultivar investigation
- acceleration of cultivar introduction into production