The quality of seeds is the most important factor in increasing the yield of agricultural crops, including soybeans. However, on average, up to 20–25% of soybean seeds sown in the Amur oblast are substandard. At the same time, one of the main reasons for the decline in the quality of seed material is significant crushing and damage of soybeans during harvesting and processing. Up to ten different brands of combines, which allow a high degree of crushing of bunker grain, are used in harvesting soybeans in the Amur oblast. The crushing of grain by combines of different brands varies in the range from 6.9 to 15.1%. Combines of Russian and foreign production are mainly single-beater drum by design and collect the threshed soybean grain in one bunker, while they do not separate seeds according to the biological diversity inherent in soybeans. As a result, soybean yield losses reach 2.7–3.3 c/ha. In order to reduce grain losses from the crushing and obtaining of high-quality seeds, a new device based on a two-stage threshing combine with double-flow cleaning and with two bunkers was developed. The study of the operating modes of the threshing and separating device for threshing, separation, and damage of soybean seeds along the length of the combine thresher was carried out. The goal of this study was the selection and preservation of the part of the biologically valuable and high-quality soybean seeds from the crushing during combine harvesting of soybean with reduced grain moisture (less than 12%). The conducted research with the use of the complete factorial experiment method and processing the results allowed creating mathematical models of separation and seed damage. Based on this model, a nomogram for determination of separation and the content of damaged soybean seeds was constructed. Damaged seeds were obtained in the zone of the first beater drum, depending on the technological adjustments of the threshing apparatus, grain feed, and grain moisture.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Sinegovskaya, V.T., The development strategy for soybean breeding and seed production in the Russian Far East, Tr. Kuban. Gos. Agrarn. Univ., 2016, no. 59, pp. 344–350.
Sinegovskaya, V.T. and Aseeva, T.A., Innovative developments for solving the problems of import substitution, Vestn. Ross. S-kh. Nauki, 2017, no. 2, pp. 24–27.
Sinegovskii, M.O. and Malashonok, A.A., The current state and functioning problems of the resource and raw material base of the soya subcomplex of Amur oblast, Ekon. S-kh. Pererab. Predpr., 2018, no. 9, pp. 31–35.
Oborskaya, Yu.V. and Ran, O.P., The influence of the physicomechanical properties of seeds of various cultivars on the degree of their injury, in Sovremennye tekhnologii proizvodstva i pererabotki sel’skokhozyaistvennykh kul’tur: Sb. (Current Technologies for Production and Processing of Crops: Collection), Blagoveshchensk: OOO Tipografiya, 2017, pp. 257–265.
Fedchenko, B.Kh., Gontar’, A.S., and Shutov, N.S., Damaging the grain by the working bodies of the combine in soybean harvesting, in Intensifikatsiya soevodstva na Dal’ nem Vostoke. Sb. nauch. tr. VASKhNIL. Sib. otd. (Intensification of Soybean Production in the Far East. Scientific Proceedings. Siberian Branch), Novosibirsk, 1985, pp. 122–125.
Bumbar, I.V., Uborka soi: Monogragiya (Soybean Harvesting: Monograph), Blagoveshchensk: Izd. Dal’nevost. Gos. Agrarn. Univ., 2006.
de Menezes, P.C., da Silva, R.P., Carneiro, F.M., da Girio, L.A.S., de Oliveira, M.F., and Voltarelli, M.A., Can combine headers and travel speeds affect the guality of soybean harvesting operations?, Rev. Bras. Eng. Agric. Ambiental, 2018, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 732–738.
Chansrakoo, W. and, Chuan-Udom, S., Factors of operation affecting performance of a short axial-flow soybean threshing unit, Eng. J. (Thailand), 2018, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 109–120.
Paixao, C.S.S., Chrispin, C.P., da Silva, R.P., da Girio, L.A.S., and Voltarelli, M.A., Physical and physiological guality of soybean seeds at three speeds of the harvester, Rev. Bras. Eng. Agric. Ambiental, 2017, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 214–218.
de Lima, F.B.F., da Silva, M.A.F., and da Silva, R.P., Quality of mechanical soybean harvesting at two travel speeds, Eng. Agric., 2017, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1171–1182.
Prisyazhnaya, I.M. and Prisyazhnaya, S.P., Technological features of plants and seeds of soybean, in Zakonomernosti razvitiya tekhnicheskikh i tekhnologicheskikh nauk: Sb. statei mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii (Patterns of Development of Technical and Technological Sciences: Proc. Int. Sci.-Pract. Conf.), Ufa, 2017, pp. 67–70.
Prisyazhnaya, I.M., Prisyazhnaya, S.P., and Prisyazhnyi, M.M., Sovershenstvovanie protsessa obmolota, separatsii i transportirovaniya dlya povysheniya kachestva semyan pri kombainovoi uborke energeticheski effektivnoi soi: Kollektivnaya monografiya (Improving the Process of Threshing, Separation, and Transportation to Improve Seed Quality during Combine Harvesting of Energy-Efficient Soybeans: Collective Monograph), Blagoveshchensk: Izd. Amur. Gos. Univ., 2018.
Prisyazhnaya, I.M., Prisyazhnaya, S.P., and Sinegovskaya, V.T., Mathematical modeling of the process of threshing and separation of grain in a two-phase threshing device of the combine, Dostizh. Nauki Tekh. Agroprom. Kompleksa, 2018, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 76–79.
Adler, Yu.P., Markova, E.V., and Granovskii, Yu.V., Planirovanie eksperimenta pri poiske optimal’nykh uslovii (Planning Experiments in Search for Optimal Conditions), Moscow: Nauka, 1976.
Grachev, Yu.L., Matematicheskie metody planirovaniya eksperimenta (Mathematical Methods of Planning Experiments), Moscow: Pishch. Prom-st., 1979.
Blokh, L.S., Prakticheskaya nomografiya (Practical Nomography), Moscow: Vyssh. shk., 1971.
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies involving animals or human participants performed by any of the authors.
Translated by V. Mittova
About this article
Cite this article
Prisyazhnaya, I.M., Sinegovskiy, M.O. & Prisyazhnaya, S.P. Improvement of the Soybean Harvesting Process as a Way to Increase the Quality of Seeds. Russ. Agricult. Sci. 45, 593–597 (2019). https://doi.org/10.3103/S1068367419060181
- seed harvesting
- two-stage threshing