The pot experiment was conducted at Agronomy Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during winter 2015–2016 to study the impact of Fertilizers management for improving water use efficiency in winter cereals. The experiment was laid out in CRD having four replications. The experimental treatments consisted of crops (wheat and oats), fertilizers sources T1 (control), T2 (NpK @ 90 : 60 : 0 Kg ha–1), T3 (FYM @ 10 ton ha–1), T4 (biochar @ 10 ton ha–1), T5 (FYM @ 10 ton ha–1 + biochar (@ 10 ton ha–1) and three stages (5th Jan, 12th Jan, 19th Jan). Different fertilizer sources had significantly affected all parameters except days to emergence. Fertilizer NPK had significantly increased emergence m–2 (1133.45 m–2), plant height (22.2 cm), leaf area plant–1 (58.4 cm2), LAI (6.6), root fresh weight plant–1 (127.9 mg), root dry weight plant–1 (22.5 mg), shoot fresh weight plant–1 (748.8 mg), shoot dry weight plant–1 (131.7 mg), biomass plant–1 (154.2 mg), Soil pH (8.16) and water use efficiency (20.1 kg ha–1 mm–1), whereas FYM + biochar had maximum root length (9.8 cm). In crops Oat had significantly more emergence (1037.24 m–2), plant height (23.3 cm), root to shoot ratio (2.7), root fresh weight plant–1 (110 mg), root dry weight plant–1 (20.1 mg), shoot fresh weight plant–1 (778.7 mg), shoot dry weight plant–1 (138.5 mg), biomass plant–1 (158.5 mg) and WUE (18.7 kg ha–1 mm–1), while higher, root length (9.4 cm), leaf area plant–1 (46.6 cm) and LAI (4.8) was recorded from wheat. Stage three (19th Jan) had significantly more plant height (22.4 cm), root length (9.9 cm), leaf area plant–1 (62.5 cm2), LAI (6.5), root fresh weight plant–1 (133.3 mg), root dry weight plant–1 (27.8 mg), shoot fresh weight plant–1 (803 mg), shoot dry weight plant–1 (163 mg), biomass plant–1 (190.8 mg) and WUE (18.4 kg ha–1 mm–1). In C × S, oats at stage three produced higher root fresh weight (153.8 mg), root dry weight (33.1 mg), shoot fresh weight (1091.3 mg), shoot dry weight (225.2 mg), biomass (258.3 mg) and WUE (25.1 kg ha–1 mm–1). The interaction of with C with T, oats treated with NPK produced maximum shoot dry weight (164.9 mg), biomass (188.2 mg) and WUE (22.8 kg ha–1 mm–1). In S × T, at stage three (19th Jan) with the application of NPK had produced more leaf area plant–1 (90.7 cm2), LAI (10.3), biomass (215.8 mg). Based on the results oats treated with inorganic fertilizer have higher WUE. Inorganic fertilizer improves plant WUE.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies involving animals or human participants performed by any of the authors.
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Manzoor, Shafi, M., Sohail, A. et al. Fertilizer Management for Improving Water Use Efficiency in Winter Cereals in Semiarid Region of Northwest, Pakistan. Russ. Agricult. Sci. 45, 550–560 (2019). https://doi.org/10.3103/S1068367419060144
- fertilizer management
- water use efficiency
- winter cereals
- semiarid region