Skip to main content

An Investigation to the Vermicompost Efficacy on the Activity Level of Antioxidant Enzymes and Photosynthetic Pigments of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) under Salinity Stress Conditions

Abstract

Salinity stress is one of the most important factors that limit the growth and yield of agricultural crops in arid and semi-arid regions. Activation of the antioxidant system in plants acts as a defense mechanism to build tolerance against salinity. The present factorial experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design. with four replications to evaluate the effect of salinity and application of vermicompost on the activity level of antioxidant enzymes and photosynthetic pigments borage (Borage officinalis L.) under salinity stress conditions. The study treatments consist of four vermicompost levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt % potted soil in dry weight) and four salinity levels (0 (control), 4, 8 and 12 ds/m sodium chloride (NaCl)). The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed the considerable influence of salinity stress and vermicompost on the activity level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and total chlorophyll enzymes. The findings indicated that incremental salinity increased the activity level of antioxidant enzymes and decreased photosynthetic pigments. The results showed that the use of vermicompost fertilizer raised the levels of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids significantly compared to the control. Based on the comparison of means of the interactions between salinity stress and vermicompost the maximum activity of antioxidant enzymes was obtained by 15 wt % vermicompost treatment at the salinity level of 12 ds/m NaCl. Therefore, the use of vermicompost as an organic fertilizer, in addition to increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and photosynthetic pigments, can be a good way to reduce the negative effects of high levels of sodium and chlorine in soils on the growth of borage.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Abbreviations

NaCl:

sodium chloride

ANOVA:

analysis of variance

SOD:

superoxide dismutase

APX:

ascorbate peroxidase

GPX:

glutathione peroxidase

CAT:

catalase

MDA:

malon dialdehyde

AA:

ascorbic acid

POD:

peroxidase

Pr:

Protein

References

  1. Gholinejad, R., Sirousmehr, A., and Fakheri, B., Effect of drought stress and organic fertilizer on activity of some antioxidant enzymes, photosynthetic pigments, proline and yield of Borage (Borago officinalis), J. Hortic. Sci., 2014, vol. 3, no. 28, pp. 338–346.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Dufault, R.J., Rushing, J., Hassal, R., Shepard, B.M., and Ward, B., Influence of fertilizer on growth and marker compound of field grown Echinacea species and feverfew, Sci. Hortic., 2003, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 420–423.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Rasouli-Sadaghiani, M.H., Moghadas Gerani, M., Ashrafi Saeidlou, S., and Sepehr, E., Effect of different calcium sources application on antioxidant, enzymatic activity and qualitative characteristics of apple (Malus domestic), J. Crop Prot. Proc., 2017, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 73–87.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bagheri, A.A. and Khosravinejad, F., Study of biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymes activities on oryza sativa under salt stress, Dev. Biol., 2016, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Xu, Y.C., Zhang, J.B., Jiang, Q.A., Zhou, L.Y., and Miao, H.B., Effects of water stress on the growth of Lonicera japonica and quality of honeysuckle, Zhong Yao Cai, 2006, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 420–423.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Mittler, R., Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance, Trends Plant Sci., 2002, vol. 7, pp. 405–410.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Yildiz, M. and Terzi, H., Effect of NaCl stress on chlorophyll biosynthesis, proline, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes in leaves of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive barley cultivars, J. Agri. Sci., 2013, vol. 19, pp. 79–88.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Chandlee, J.M. and Scandalios, J.G., Analysis of variants affecting the plants, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 1984, vol. 168, pp. 541–549.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Agarwal, S., Sairam, R.K., Srivatava, G.C., and Meena, R.C., Changes in antioxidant enzymes activity and oxidative stress by abscisic acid and salicylic acid in wheat genotypes, Biol. Plant, 2005, vol. 49, pp. 541–550.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Kaya, M.D., Ipek, A., and Ozturk, A., Effects of different soil salinity levels on germination and seedling growth of safflower, Turk. J. Agric. For., 2003, vol. 27, pp. 221–227.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Mona, Y., Kandi, A.M., and Swaefy Hend, M.F., Effect of three different compost levels on fennel and salvia growth character and their essential oils, Biol. Sci., 2008, vol. 4, pp. 34–39.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Asghari, M., Yusefirad, M., and Masoumi Zavarian., A., Effects of organic fertilizers of compost and vermicompost on qualitative and quantitative traits of lemon verbena, J. Med. Plants, 2016, vol. 2, no. 58, pp. 63–71.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Oliva, M.A., Rincón, R., Zenteno, E., Pinto, A., Dendooven, L., and Gutierrez, F., Vermicompost role against sodium chloride stress in the growth and photosynthesis in tamarind plantlets (Tamarindus indica L.), Gayana Bot., 2008, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 10–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Kaboosi, K. and Nodehi, A., The effects of salinity stress levels on quantity and quality traits of different cultivars of canola under application of vermicompost, Crop Prod., 2016, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 133–151.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Eshghizadeh, H.R., Kafi, M., Nezami, A., and Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H., Effect of salinity on leaf water status, proline and total soluble sugar concentrations and activity of antioxidant enzymes in blue panic grass, J. Sci. Technol. Greenhouse Cult. Soilless Cult. Res., 2014, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 11–25.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Babakhanzade Sajirani, E., Shakouri, M.J., and Mafakheri, S., Borage (Borago officinalis L.) germination under saline condition, Ann. Biol. Res., 2011, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 414–416.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Shirazi, M.U., Ashraf Khan, M.A., and Nagvi, M.H., Potassium induced salinity tolerance in wheat, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2005, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 233–236.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Dere, S., Gunes, T., and Sivaci, R., Spectrophotometric determination of chlorophyll-a, b and total carotenoids contents of some algae species using different solvents, Botany, 1998, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 13–17.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Holy, M.C., Indole acetic acid oxidase: A dual catalytic enzyme, Plant Physiol., 1972, vol. 50, pp. 15–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Aebi, H., Catalase in vitro, Methods Enzymol., 1984, vol. 105, pp. 121–126.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Chandlee, J.M. and Scandalios, J.G., Analysis of variants affecting the plants, Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 1984, vol. 168, pp. 541–549.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Baily, C., Active oxygen species and antioxidants in seed biology, Seed Sci. Res., 2004, vol. 14, pp. 93–107.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Garratt, L.C., Janagoudar, B.S., Lowe, K.C., Anthony, P., Bower, J.B., and Devey, M.R., Salinity tolerance and antioxidant status in cotton cultures, Free Radical Biol. Med., 2002, vol. 33, pp. 502–511.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Appel, K. and Hirt, H., Reactive oxygen species: Metabolism, oxidative stress and signal transduction, Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 2004, vol. 55, pp. 373–399.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Bor, M., Özdemir, F., and Türkan, I., The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in leaves of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. and wild beet Beta maritima L., Plant Sci., 2003, vol. 164, pp. 78–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Alinia, M. and Kazemeini, S.A., Effect of salinity stress on growth, yield and some physiological traits of forage sorghum cultivars, J. Crop Proc., 2017, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 19–31.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Gunes, A., Inal, A., Alpaslan, M., Eraslan, F., Bagci, E.G., and Cicek, N., Salicylic acid induced changes on some physiological parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress and mineral nutrition in maize (Zea mays L.) grown under salinity, J. Plant Physiol., 2007, vol. 164, pp. 728–736.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Farhoudi, R., Investigation the salinity tension effect on growth and physiological characteristics of nine wheat cultivars at vegetative growth stage, Crop Physiol. J., 2014, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 71–86.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Taarit, M.B., Msaada, K., and Marzouk, B., Plant growth, essential oil yield and composition of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) fruits cultivated under salt stress conditions, Ind. Crops Prod., 2009, vol. 30, pp. 333–337.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Beyk Khurmizi, A., Ganjeali, A., Abrishamchi, P., and Parsa, M., The effect of vermicompost on salt tolerance of bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Agroecology, 2010, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 474–485.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Afkari.

Additional information

The article is published in the original.

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Afkari, A. An Investigation to the Vermicompost Efficacy on the Activity Level of Antioxidant Enzymes and Photosynthetic Pigments of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) under Salinity Stress Conditions. Russ. Agricult. Sci. 44, 310–317 (2018). https://doi.org/10.3103/S106836741804002X

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.3103/S106836741804002X

Keywords

  • superoxide dismutase
  • catalase
  • sodium chloride
  • glutathione
  • carotenoid
  • chlorophyll