Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 170–176 | Cite as

Water quality assessment of the River Kabul at Peshawar, Pakistan: Industrial and urban wastewater impacts

  • Zahid Ullah
  • Hizbullah Khan
  • Amir Waseem
  • Qaisar Mahmood
  • Umar Farooq
Water Treatment and Demineralization Technology


Untreated wastewater discharges may have significant short term and long term effects on the quality of a river system. Present study was undertaken to assess the present status of the water quality of the River Kabul near Peshawar in Pakistan. Seven sites were sampled upstream and downstream in the River Kabul in 2009. Samples were also taken from waste water channel (Budni Drain) that carries waste-water of Peshawar Industrial Estate as well as the domestic sewers to assess the pollution contribution of these sources to the River Kabul. Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of the samples were analyzed during the study, as well as possible sources of contamination were investigated. The study showed that the pollution level in river is rising from upstream (at city entrance) to downstream (at city exit) due to discharge of domestic waste water effluents, agricultural activities, and solid waste dumping directly into the river.


River Kabul (Pakistan) water quality industrial waste water physico-chemical microbial parameters heavy metals 


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Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zahid Ullah
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hizbullah Khan
    • 2
  • Amir Waseem
    • 3
  • Qaisar Mahmood
    • 3
  • Umar Farooq
    • 3
  1. 1.Allama Iqbal Open UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.University of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan
  3. 3.COMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyAbbottabadPakistan

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