Seismic Instruments

, Volume 53, Issue 4, pp 309–322 | Cite as

On traces of a strong earthquake in walls of the Sary-Bulun medieval sites along the great silk route (western Issyk-Kul Lake region, Northern Tien Shan)

  • A. M. Korzhenkov
  • D. V. Luzhanskii
  • S. V. Abdieva
  • E. V. Deev
  • T. L. Pavlis
  • E. A. Rogozhin
  • I. V. Turova
  • A. S. Yudakhin
Article

Abstract

The Sary-Bulun archeological sites located along the Great Silk Route of medieval times are studied. The study revealed a number of the deformations of seismogenic origin: tilts, shifts, and collapse and lateral bends of walls as well as long fissures in corner parts of the rooms. Judging by archeological artifacts, the seismic event occurred at the end of the 12th–beginning of the 13th century AD. Judging by degree of damage, the intensity of this ancient earthquake was I ≥ VIII on the MSK-64. The source of the seismic oscillations was apparently located in the faults cutting the active Boz-Barmak anticline. The studied archeological sites are located on the western limb of this anticline structure. In the medieval period, the Sary-Bulun settlements were the largest metallurgic centers of the Issyk-Kul depression and, thus, they are of a great significance for studying industrial processes of that time.

Keywords

Sary-Bulun locality medieval archeological sites ruins kinematic indicators Great Silk Route archeoseismology Tien Shan 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Al-Tarazi, E. and Korjenkov, A.M., Archeoseismological investigation of the ancient Ayla site in the city of Aqaba, Jordan, Nat. Hazards, 2007, vol. 42, pp. 47–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnold, C., Architectural considerations, in The Seismic Design Handbook, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1989, pp. 142–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bowman, D., Korjenkov, A., and Porat, N., Late-Pleistocene seismites from Lake Issyk-Kul, the Tien Shan range, Kyrghyzstan, Sediment. Geol., 2004a, vol. 163, pp. 211–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowman, D., Korjenkov, A., Porat, N., and Czassny, B., Morphological response through competing of thrusting and erosion, at basin foothills, the Northern Tien Shan, Kyrghyzstan, Geomorphology, 2004b, vol. 63, pp. 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burgette, R.J., Uplift in response to tectonic convergence: The Kyrgyz Tien Shan and Cascadia subduction zone, PhD Dissertation, Eugene, Ore.: Univ. of Oregon, 2008.Google Scholar
  6. Buslov, M.M., De Grave, J., Bataleva, E.A., and Batalev, V.Yu., Cenozoic tectonic and geodynamic evolution of the Kyrgyz Tien Shan Mountains: A review of geological, thermochronological and geophysical data, J. Asian Earth Sci., 2007, vol. 29, pp. 205–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chediya, O. K., Morfostruktury i noveishii tektogenez Tyan’- Shanya (Morphostructures and Neotectonic Tectogenesis of Tien Shan), Frunze: Ilim, 1986.Google Scholar
  8. Deev, E.V. and Korzhenkov, A.M., Paleoseismological studies in the epicentral area of the 1911 Kemin earthquake (northern Tien Shan), Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2016, vol. 57, pp. 337–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dzhanuzakov, K., Omuraliev, M., Omuralieva, A., Il’yasov, B., and Grebennikova, V.V., Sil’nye zemletryaseniya Tyan’-Shanya v predelakh territorii Kyrgyzstana i prilegayushchikh raionov stran Tsentral’noi Azii (Strong Earthquakes of the Tien Shan in the Territory of Kyrgyzstan and Adjacent Areas of Central Asian Countries), Bishkek: Ilim, 2003.Google Scholar
  10. Fortuna, A.B., Mesozoic and Paleogene–Neogene deposits, in Detal’noe seismicheskoe raionirovanie Issyk-Kul’skoi vpadiny (Detailed Seismic Zoning of the Issyk Kul Depression), Bishkek: Ilim, 1993, pp. 11–15.Google Scholar
  11. Klinger, Y., Avouac, J.P., Dorbath, L., Abou Karaki, N., and Tisnerat, N., Seismic behavior of the Dead Sea fault along Araba valley, Jordan, Geophys. J. Int., 2000, vol. 142, no. 3, pp. 769–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Korjenkov, A.M., Seismogenic convolutions in the lacustrine deposits of the Issyk-Kul Lake, the Tien Shan, J. Earthquake Predict. Res., 2000, vol. 8, pp. 514–519.Google Scholar
  13. Korjenkov, A.M. and Ericson-Gini, T., The seismic origin of the destruction of the Nabataean Forts of Ein Erga and Ein Rahel, Arava Valley, Israel, Archaeol. Anz., 2003, no. 2, pp. 39–50.Google Scholar
  14. Korjenkov, A.M. and Mazor, E., Earthquake characteristics reconstructed from archeological damage patterns: Shivta, the Negev Desert, Israel, Isr. J. Earth Sci., 1999a, vol. 48, pp. 265–282.Google Scholar
  15. Korjenkov, A.M. and Mazor, E., Seismogenic origin of the ancient Avdat ruins, Negev desert, Israel, Nat. Hazards, 1999b, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 193–226.Google Scholar
  16. Korjenkov, A.M. and Mazor, E., Structural reconstruction of seismic events: Ruins of ancient buildings as fossil seismographs, Sci. New Technol., 1999c, no. 1, pp. 62–74.Google Scholar
  17. Korjenkov, A.M. and Mazor, E., Archeoseimology in Mamshit (Southern Israel): Cracking a millennia code of earthquakes preserved in ancient ruins, Archaeol. Anz., 2003, no. 2, pp. 51–82.Google Scholar
  18. Korjenkov, A.M. and Mazor, E., Diversity of earthquakes destruction patterns: The Roman-Byzantine ruins of Haluza, Negev desert, Israel, Archaeol. Anz., 2005, no. 2, pp. 1–15.Google Scholar
  19. Korjenkov, A.M. and Schmidt, K., An archaeoseismological study at TALL Hujayrat al-Ghuzlan: Seismic destruction of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze age structures, in Prehistoric Aqaba I, vol. 23 of Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. Orient-Abtailung. Orient-Archäologie, Rahden, Westf.: Marie Leidorf, 2009, pp. 79–97.Google Scholar
  20. Korjenkov, A.M. and Mazor, E., Archaeoseismological damage pattern at the ancient ruins of Rehovot-ba-Negev, Israel, Archaeol. Anz., 2014, no. 1, pp. 75–92.Google Scholar
  21. Korjenkov, A.M., Baypakov, K.M., Chang, C., Peshkov, Yu., and Savelieva, T., Traces of ancient earthquakes in Medieval cities along the Great Silk Route, Northern Tien Shan and Dzhungaria, Turk. J. Earth Sci., 2003, vol. 12, pp. 241–261.Google Scholar
  22. Korjenkov, A.M., Arrowsmith, J.R., Crosby, C., Mamyrov, E., Orlova, L.A., Povolotskaya, I.E., and Tabaldiev, K., Seismogenic destruction of the Kamenka medieval fortress, Northern Issyk-Kul region, Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan), J. Seismol., 2006, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 431–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Korjenkov, A.M., Tabaldiev, K.Sh., Bobrovskii, Al.V., Bobrovskii, Ar.V., Mamyrov, E.M., and Orlova, L.A., A macroseismic study of the Taldy-Sai caravanserai in the Kara-Bura River valley (Talas basin, Kyrgyzstan), Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2009, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Korjenkov, A.M., Abdieva, S.V., Dzhumabaeva, A.B., Fortuna, A.B., Mamyrov, E., Morozova, E.A., Orlova, L.A., and Vakhrameeva, P.S., Strong historical earthquakes in the northwestern Issyk Kul Basin (northern Tien Shan), Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2011, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 1007–1015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Korjenkov, A.M., Kol’chenko, V.A., Rott, F.G., and Abdieva, S.V., Strong mediaeval earthquake in the Chu Basin, Kyrgyzstan, Geotectonics, 2012, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 303–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Korzhenkov, A.M., Seismogeologiya Tyan’-Shanya (Seismogeology of the Tien Shan), Bishkek: Ilim, 2006.Google Scholar
  27. Korzhenkov, A.M. and Mazor, E., The features of the earthquake damage patterns of ancient city ruins in the Negev Desert, Israel, Geotectonics, 2013, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 52–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Korzhenkov, A.M., Bowman, D., Omuraliev, M., and Haselton, K., Signatures of prehistoric large earthquakes in the sediments of Lake Issyk Kul, Izv. Russ. Geogr. O-va, 1999, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 48–55.Google Scholar
  29. Korzhenkov, A.M., Rogozhin, E.A., Shen, J., Deev, E.V., Abdieva, S.V., Fortuna, A.B., Muraliev, A.M., Charimov, T.A., Yudakhin, A.S., and Mazeika, J., Palaeoseismological and archaeoseismological investigation on RFBR international projects, Vestn. Ross. Fonda Fundam. Issled., 2014, no. 1, pp. 17–22.Google Scholar
  30. Korzhenkov, A.M., Abdieva, S.V., Mazeika, J., Muraliev, A.M., Fortuna, A.B., Charimov, T.A., and Yudakhin, A.S., On unknown strong Holocene earthquakes in the south of the Issyk Kul depression, Tien Shan, Seism. Instrum., 2015a, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 157–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Korzhenkov, A.M., Abdieva, S.V., Fortuna, A.B., Charimov, T.A., and Yudakhin, A.S., Seismically mobilized moraines in the Tien Shan, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2015b, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1475–1483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Korzhenkov, A.M., Avanesyan, M.A., Vardanyan, A.A., and Vergino, E.S., Traces of strong earthquakes of the 9th century in the ruins of Dvin, ancient Armenian capital, Seism. Instrum., 2016a, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Korzhenkov, A.M., Kol’chenko, V.A., Luzhanskiy, D.V., Rogozhin, E.A., Kazmer, M., Mazeika, J.V., Deev, E.V., Fortuna, A.B., Shen, J., Yudakhin, A.S., Abdieva, S.V., and Rodina, S.N., Archeoseismological investigation of the Kurmenty medieval settlement site, northeastern Issyk-Kul region, Kyrgyzstan, Seism. Instrum., 2016b, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 154–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Korzhenkov, A.M., Kol’chenko, V.A., Luzhanskii, D.V., Abdieva, S.V., Deev, E.V., Mazeika, J.V., Rogozhin, E.A., Rodina, S.N., Rodkin, M.V., Fortuna, A.B., Charimov, T.A., and Yudakhin, A.S., Archaeoseismological studies and structural position of the medieval earthquakes in the South of the Issyk-Kul depression (Tien Shan), Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2016c, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 218–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kul’turno-istoricheskie pamyatniki (Cultural and Historical Monuments), Bishkek, 2003.Google Scholar
  36. Kyrgyz-Turk «Manas» universitetindegi arkheologiyalyk izildoolor (Archeological Studies of the Manas Kyrgyz-Turkish University), Bishkek, 2010.Google Scholar
  37. Mazor, E. and Korjenkov, A.M., Applied archeoseismology: Decoding earthquake parameters recorded in archeological ruins, in The Makhteshim Country: A Laboratory of Nature. Geological and Ecological Studies in the Desert Region of Israel, Krasnov, B. and Mazor, E., Eds., Moscow: Pensoft Publ., 2001, pp. 123–153.Google Scholar
  38. Molnar, P. and Tapponnier, P., Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: Effects of a continental collision, Science, 1975, vol. 189, pp. 419–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Povolotskaya, I.E., Korzhenkov, A.M., and Mamyrov, E.M., Signature of large earthquakes in lacustrine deposits of the Kok-Moynok basin (northern Tien Shan), Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2006, no. 9. pp. 1011–1022.Google Scholar
  40. Pomazkov, K.D., Geologicheskaya karta SSSR. 1: 200 000. Ser. Severo-Tyan’-Shan’skaya. List K-43-XVII (Geological Map of the USSR. Scale 1: 200000. Ser. North Tien Shan. Sheet K-43-XVII), Moscow, 1968.Google Scholar
  41. Rapp, G., Assessing archaeological evidence for seismic catastrophes, Geoarchaeology, 1986, vol. 1, pp. 365–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Richter, C.F., Elementary Seismology, San-Francisco: Freeman, 1958.Google Scholar
  43. Rukieh, M., Trifonov, V.G., Dodonov, A.E., Minini, H., Ammar, O., Ivanova, T.P., Zaza, T., Yusef, A., Al-Shara, M., and Jobaili, Y., Neotectonic map of Syria and some aspects of Late Cenozoic evolution of the northwestern boundary zone of the Arabian plate, J. Geodyn., 2005, vol. 40, pp. 235–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Selander, J., Inherited strike-slip faults as an origin for basement-cored uplifts: Example of the Kungey and Zailiskey ranges, Northern Tien Shan, M.S. Thesis, Chapel Hill, N.C.: Univ. of North Carolina, 2008.Google Scholar
  45. Selander, J., Oskin, M., Ormukov, Ch., and Abdrakhmatov, K., Inherited strike-slip faults as an origin for basement- cored uplifts: Example of the Kungey and Zailiskey ranges, Northern Tien Shan, Tectonics, 2012, vol. 31, pp. 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Turbin, L.I., Aleksandrova, N.V., and Konyukhov, A.G., Paleogene and Neogene of northeastern Kirgizia, in Geologiya SSSR. T. XXV Kirgizskaya SSR., kn. 1 (Geology of the USSR, Vol. XXV, Kirgiz SSR, Pt. 1). Moscow: Nedra, 1972, pp. 256–268.Google Scholar
  47. Utirov, Ch.U., Seismodislocations and paleoseismodislocations, in Detal’noe seismicheskoe raionirovanie Issyk- Kul’skoi vpadiny (Detailed Seismic Zoning of the Issyk Kul Depression), Abdrakhmatov, K.E., Ed., Bishkek: Ilim, 1993, pp. 113–125.Google Scholar
  48. Vinnik, D.F., Raboty Issyk-Kul’skogo otryada. Arkheologicheskii otchet 1976 goda (Works of the Issyk Kul Party; Archeological Report of 1976), Moscow, 1977.Google Scholar
  49. Vinnik, D.F., Raboty na Issyk-Kule. Arkheologicheskii otchet 1977 goda (Works at Lake Issyk Kul; Archeological Report of 1977), Moscow, 1978.Google Scholar
  50. Vinokurov, N.I., Korzhenkov, A.M., and Rodkin, M.V., Seismic hazard assessment of the Kerch Strait region by archeoseismology data, Vopr. Inzh. Seismol., 2015, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 51–66.Google Scholar
  51. Yudakhin, F.N., Geofizicheskie polya, glubinnoe stroenie i seismichnost’ Tyan’-Shanya (Geophysical Fields Deep Structure, and Seismicity of Tien Shan), Frunze: Ilim, 1983.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. Korzhenkov
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. V. Luzhanskii
    • 2
  • S. V. Abdieva
    • 2
  • E. V. Deev
    • 3
    • 4
  • T. L. Pavlis
    • 5
  • E. A. Rogozhin
    • 1
  • I. V. Turova
    • 3
    • 4
  • A. S. Yudakhin
    • 2
  1. 1.Schmidt Institute of Physics of the EarthRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Yeltsin Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic UniversityBishkekKyrgyzstan
  3. 3.Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian BranchRussian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussia
  4. 4.Novosibirsk State UniversityNovosibirskRussia
  5. 5.University of TexasEl PasoUnited States

Personalised recommendations