Cytology and Genetics

, Volume 52, Issue 1, pp 11–20 | Cite as

Comparison of alleles at the Gli-1 loci of common wheat by means of two-dimensional electrophoresis of gliadin and RFLP analysis

  • E. V. MetakovskyEmail author
  • V. A. Melnik
  • P. Vaccino
  • M. Rodriguez-Quijano


Allelic variants of the Gli-1 locus is known to control groups (blocks) of gliadin polypeptides (gliadins). Some allelic variants of blocks that differ in the electrophoretic (acid gel) mobility (EM) of only one gliadin of the block were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and the RFLP procedure. It was found that, in these pairs of similar alleles (Gli-B1f, Gli-B1s, and Gli-D1a as compared with Gli-B1e, Gli-B1n, and Gli-D1c, respectively), faster γ-gliadin had smaller molecular weight (MW). Alleles at the Gli-A1 locus (Gli-A1j, Gli-A1i, Gli-A1a, Gli-A1k, and Gli-A1f) differ in the EM of the γ-gliadin so that Gli-A1j controls the slowest γ-gliadin and Gli-A1f controls the fastest one. We found that, in this order of alleles, faster γ-gliadin always had smaller MW. It was suggested that similar alleles might arise from one another by spontaneous mutations changing the number of repeating sequences or length of the polyglutamine domain present in the γ-gliadin gene thereby influencing MW and EM of encoding polypeptide. Other mechanisms of the mutational appearance of new alleles were found earlier by comparison of allele pairs: Gli-D1a and Gli-D1k (gene silencing) and Gli-D1b and Gli-D1d (gene amplification). We discovered contrasting families of alleles at the Gli-B1 and at the Gli-D1 loci and also two variants of apparently the same allele Gli-D1a that differed in the number of encoded ω-gliadins. Families of alleles at one locus of T. aestivum might inherit from different genotypes of corresponding diploid donor, as we suggested earlier.


gliadin alleles mutations common wheat 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Metakovsky, E.V. and Graybosch, R.A., Gliadin alleles in wheat: identification and application, in Gliadin and Glutenin. The Unique Balance of Wheat Quality, Wrigley, C., Békés, F., and Bushuk, W., Eds., AACC Intl. Press, 2006, pp. 85–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sozinov, A.A. and Poperelya, F.A., Genetic classification of prolamins and its use for plant breeding, Ann. Technol. Agric., 1980, vol. 29, pp. 229–245.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Metakovsky, E.V., Davydov, S.D., Chernakov, V.M., and Upelniek, V.P., Gliadin allele identification in common wheat. 3. Frequency of occurrence and appearance of spontaneous mutations at the gliadincoding loci, J. Genet. Breed., 1993, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 221–236.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Upelniek, V.P., Novoselskaya, A.Yu., Sutka, J., Galiba, G., and Metakovsky, E.V., Genetic variation at storage protein coding loci of common wheat (cv Chinese Spring) induced by nitrosoethylurea and by cultivation of immature embryos in vitro, Theor. Appl. Genet., 1995, vol. 90, nos. 3–4, pp. 372–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barak, S., Mudgil, D., and Khatkar, B.S., Biochemical and functional properties of wheat gliadins: a review, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nut., 2015, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 357–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Metakovsky, A.V., Wheat Grain Storage Proteins: Classical Genetics, Mutations, Phylogeny, Seed Breeding, and Grain Quality, Lambert Acad. Pabl., 2015.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Qi, P.F., Wei, Y.M., Ouellet, T., Chen, Q., Tan, X., and Zheng, Y.L., The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its closely related species, BMC Genom., 2009, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 168–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang, S., Shen, X., Ge, P., Li, J., Subburaj, S., Li, S.X., Zeller, F.J., Hsam, K.L., and Yan, Y., Molecular characterization and dynamic expression patterns of two types of γ-gliadin genes from Aegilops and Triticum species, Theor. Appl. Genet., 2012, vol. 125, no. 7, pp. 1371–1384.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anderson, O.D., Huo, N., and Gu, J.Q., The gene space in wheat: the complete γ-gliadin gene family from the wheat cultivar Chinese Spring, Funct. Integr. Genom., 2013, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 261–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Landjeva, S., Korzun, V., and Borner, A., Molecular markers: actual and potential contributions to wheat genome characterization and breeding, Euphytica, 2007, vol. 156, no. 3, pp. 271–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Metakovsky, E.V., Gliadin allele identification in common wheat. 2. Catalogue of gliadin alleles in common wheat, J. Genet. Breed., 1991, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 325–344.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vaccino, P., Accerbi, M., and Corbellini, M., Cultivar identification in T. aestivum using highly polymorphic RFLP probes, Theor. Appl. Genet., 1993, vol. 86, no. 7, pp. 833–836.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bartels, D., Altosaar, I., Harberd, N.P., Barker, R.F., and Thompson, R.D., Molecular analysis of γ-gliadin gene families at the complex Gli-1 locus of bread wheat (T. aestivum L.), Theor. Appl. Genet., 1986, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 845–853.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vaccino, P. and Metakovsky, E.V., RFLP patterns of gliadin alleles implication for analysis of organization and evolution of complex loci, Theor. Appl. Genet., 1995, vol. 90, no. 2.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Redaelli, R., Metakovsky, E.V., Davydov, S.D., and Pogna, N.E., Two-dimensional mapping of gliadins using biotypes and null mutants of common wheat cultivar Saratovskaya 29, Hereditas, 1994, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 131–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pogna, N.E., Metakovsky, E.V., Redaelli, R., Raineri, F., and Dachkevitch, T., Recombination mapping of Gli-5, a new gliadin-coding locus on chromosome 1a and 1b in common wheat, Theor. Appl. Genet., 1993, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 113–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ribeiro, M., Nunes-Miranda, J.D., Branlard, G., Carrillo, J.-M., Rodriguez-Quijano, M., and Igrejas, G., One hundred years of grain omics: identifying the glutens that feed the world, Proteome Res., 2013, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 4702–4716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Novoselskaya-Dragovich, A.Yu., Genetics and genomics of wheat: storage proteins, ecological plasticity, and immunity, Russ. J. Genet., 2015, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 568–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wan, Y., Shewry, P.R., and Hawkesford, M.J., A novel family of γ-gliadin genes are highly regulated by nitrogen supply in developing wheat grain, J. Exp. Bot., 2013, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 161–168.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Charles, M., Belcram, H., Just, J., Huneau, C., Violett, A., Couloux, A., Segurens, B., Carter, M., Huteau, V., Coriton, O., Appels, R., Samain, S., and Chalhoub, B., Dynamics and differential proliferation of transposable elements during the evolution of the b and a genomes of wheat, Genetics, 2008, vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 1071–1086.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zmienko, A., Samelak, A., Kozlowski, P., and Figlerowicz, M., Copy number polymorphism in plant genomes, Theor. Appl. Genet., 2015, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wicker, T., Mayer, K.F., Gundlach, H., Martis, M., Steuernagel, B., Scholz, U., Simková, H., Kubaláková, M., Choulet, F., Taudien, S., Platzer, M., Feuillet, C., Fahima, T., Budak, H., Dolezel, J., Keller, B., and Stein, N., Frequent gene movement and pseudogene evolution is common to the large and complex genomes of wheat, barley, and their relatives, Plant Cell, 2011, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1706–1719.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Metakovsky, E.V., Akhmedov, M.G., and Payne, P.I., A case of spontaneous intergenomic transfer of genetic material containing gliadin genes in bread wheat, J. Genet. Breed, 1990, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 127–132.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Guzmán, C., Caballero, L., Martin, L.M., and Álvarez, J.B., Waxy genes from spelt wheat: new alleles for modern wheat breeding and new phylogenic inferences about the origin of this species, Ann. Bot., 2012, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 1161–1171.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ram, S., Sharma, S., Verma, A., Tyagi, B.S., and Pena, R.J., Comparative analyses of LMW glutenin alleles in bread wheat using allele-specific PCR and SDS-PAGE, J. Cereal Sci., 2011, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 488–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. V. Metakovsky
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. A. Melnik
    • 1
  • P. Vaccino
    • 2
  • M. Rodriguez-Quijano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeneticsPolytechnic University of MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Experimental Institute for Cereal ResearchSant’Angelo LodigianoItaly

Personalised recommendations