Using gas chromatography, we show that the ratio between constituents of Monarda fistulosa L. essential oil varies with the phase in plant development. Our 3-year long studies reveal that the essential oil content of wild bergamot peaks at the mass flowering phase, reaching 1.77%. This period is characterized by higher levels of α-terpineol (37.74%) and p-cyneme (4.85)—intermediate products of biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. As the plant development goes through the budding phase to the end of flowering, the thymol content increases to 48.95%, while the carvacrol content falls from 20.99 to 2.29%. We establish that the content of thymoquinone, a pharmacologically important constituent, in the essential oil of the considered plant tends to increase by the end of the flowering stage, from 3.39 to 17.65%.
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The study was by the state financing of Sechenov University, the RF Ministry of Health.
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Translated by A. Kukharuk
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Malankina, E.L., Kuzmenko, A.N., Zaitchik, B.T. et al. Content and Composition of Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa L.) Essential Oil at Different Phenological Phases. Moscow Univ. Chem. Bull. 75, 391–394 (2020). https://doi.org/10.3103/S0027131420060140
- wild bergamot
- essential oil
- gas chromatography