Skip to main content

Effect of Solar Radiation of Different Power on the Internal Amplification of the Primary Photocurrent in Heterostructures Based on Cadmium Telluride


The paper investigates and analyzes the current–voltage characteristics of the CdO-CdTe-Mo heterostructure, which is photosensitive to visible and near infrared electromagnetic radiation, in a wide range of solar radiation illumination power with an AM1.5 spectrum. The effect of internal injection amplification of the primary photocurrent in the forward direction of the applied voltage to the heterostructure is established. This effect is explained in terms of the positive feedback mechanism when the resistance of the photosensitive region of the structure is modulated by injected charge carriers and the external applied bias voltage is redistributed between the pn junction and the base region. The photosensitivity of the CdO-CdTe-Mo heterostructure, in the charge carrier injection mode, increases with an increase in the applied bias voltage and a decrease in the power of the incident solar radiation. This is explained by the effective modulation of the base of the structure by the injected charge carriers at low radiation powers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.


  1. Shockley, W. and Queisser, H.J., Detailed balance limit of efficiency of pn junction solar cells, J. Appl. Phys., 1961, vol. 32, p. 510.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Green, M.A., Solar cell efficiency tables (Version 60), Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl., 2022, vol. 30, pp. 687–701.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Usmonov, Sh.N., Mirsagatov, Sh.A., and Leyderman, A.Yu., Study of the current-voltage characteristic of the n-CdS/p-CdTe heterostructure depending on temperature, Semiconductors, 2010, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 313–317.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Mirsagatov, Sh.A., Kabulov, R.R., and Makhmudov, M.A., Injection photodiode based on an n-CdS/p-CdTe heterostructure, Semiconductors, 2013, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 825–830.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Kabulov, R.R., Makhmudov, M.A., Ataboev, O.K., et al., The study of factors that influence on the effectiveness of the photoconversion of n-CdS/p-CdTe heterostructures, Appl. Sol. Energy, 2016, vol. 52, pp. 61–67.

  6. Brus, V.V., Ilashchuk, M.I., Khomyak, V.V., Kovalyuk, Z.D., Maryanchuk, P.D., and Ulyanitsky, K.S., Electrical properties of anisotype heterojunctions n-CdZnO/p-CdTe, Semiconductors, 2012, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1152–1157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Brus, V.V., Ilashchuk, M.I., Kovalyuk, Z.D., Maryanchuk, P.D., Ulyanitsky, K.S., and Gritsyuk, B.N., Mechanisms of charge transport in anisotype n‑TiO2/p-CdTe heterojunctions, Semiconductors, 2011, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1077–1081.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Kabulov, R.R., The effect of the buffer layer material on the photosensitivity spectrum of heterostructures based on CdTe, Sci. J. Semicond. Phys. Microelectr., 2019, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 56–61.

  9. Naoyuki Ueda, Hiroo Maeda, Hideo Hosono, and Hiroshi Kawazoe, Band-gap widening of CdO thin films, J. Appl. Phys., 1998, vol. 84, no. 11, p. 6174.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Mirsagatov, S.A., Ataboev, O.K., and Makhmudov, M.A., Current sensitivity and efficiency of a CdO-pCdTe-Mo structure at low light levels, Appl. Sol. Energy, 2011, vol. 47, pp. 243–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Chopra, K. and Das, S., Thin Film Solar Cells, New York: Plenum Press, 1983.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  12. Muzafarova, S.A., Mirsagatov, Sh.A., and Janabergenov, J., Mechanism of charge transfer in n-CdS/p-CdTe heterojunctions, Phys. Solid State, 2007, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1168–1174.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Janabergenov, J., Mirsagatov, Sh.A., and Karazhanov, S.Zh., A p-i-n model of CdTe/CdS heterostructures, Inorg. Mater., 2005, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 800–802.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Mirsagatov, Sh.A., Uteniyazov, A.K., and Achilov, A.S., Mechanism of current transport in Schottky barrier diodes based on coarse-grained CdTe films, Phys. Solid State, 2012, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 1751–1763.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Solar Cells, Abou-Ras, D., Kirchartz, T., and Rau, U., Eds., Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2011, p. 564.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Sze, S.M. and Kwok, K.Ng., Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, 2007, 3rd ed., p. 823.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Stafeev, V.I., The influence of the resistance of the thickness of the semiconductor on the form of the current-voltage characteristic of the diode, Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1958, vol. 28, no. 9, p. 1631.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Leiderman, A.Yu. and Minbaeva, M.K., A mechanism of rapid growth of direct current in semiconductor diode structures, Semiconductors, 1996, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1729–1738.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Leiderman, A.Yu. and Karageorgy-Alkalaev, P.M., On the theory of sublinear current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor structures, Solid State Commun., 1978, vol. 27, p. 339.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Vikulin, I.M., Kurmashov, Sh.D., and Stafeev, V.I., Injection-based photodetectors, Semiconductors, 2008, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 112–127.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Lampert, A.M. and Mark, P., Current Injection in Solids, New York: Academic Press, 1970, p. 416.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Mirsagatov, Sh.A., Ataboev, O.K., Zaveryukhin, B.N., and Nazarov, Zh.T., Photoelectric properties of an injection photodetector based on alloys of II–VI compounds, Semiconductors, 2014, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 354–359.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kobulov, R.R., Makhmudov, M.A., Gerasimenko, S.Y., et al., Morphology and current transport in a thin-film polycrystalline Au–ZnxCd1–xS–Mo structure with wide photosensitivity range in the ultraviolet and visible radiation spectral region, Appl. Sol. Energy, 2018, vol. 54, pp. 251–254.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Sze, S., Physics of Semiconductor Devices, New York: Wiley, 1969.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Mirsagatov, Sh.A., Leiderman, A.Yu., and Ataboev, O.K., Mechanism of charge transfer in injection photodiodes based on the In−n +-CdS−n-CdSxTe1 − x-p-ZnxCd1 − xTe-Mo structure, Phys. Solid State, 2013, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1635–1646.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Sapaev, I.B., Mirsagatov, Sh.A., Sapaev, B., and Kabulov, R.R., The mechanism of photocurrent amplification in injection photodiodes based on a photosensitive polycrystalline CdS film, Fiz. Inzh. Poverkh., 2015, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 128–135.

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are grateful to the employees of the Department of Semiconductors, Physical-Technical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as the staff of the National Research Institute of Renewable Energy Sources under the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Uzbekistan for their help in the process of researching photodetectors, as well as advice in discussing the results of scientific research.


The study was carried out under the basic funding program for fundamental research of the Physical-Technical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. R. Kabulov.

Additional information

Translated by M. Chubarova

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kabulov, R.R., Gerasimenko, S.Y. & Akbarov, F.A. Effect of Solar Radiation of Different Power on the Internal Amplification of the Primary Photocurrent in Heterostructures Based on Cadmium Telluride. Appl. Sol. Energy 59, 118–124 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: