Comparative analysis of geo-engineering approaches to climate stabilization
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Geo-engineering approaches to modern climate stabilization, irrelative to the Kyoto Protocol measures, are under consideration. Conditionally, these approaches are subdivided into two groups: purposive changes in the Earth radiation balance to compensate the greenhouse gas effect and removal of the excessive amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The first group includes such methods as injection of sulfate and other reflecting aerosols into the stratosphere, creation of orbital reflectors or reflectors at the Lagrange point, an increase in cloudiness over the World Ocean, and a change in the Earth surface albedo. Increased carbon dioxide uptake by forests, ocean, and artificial absorbers are considered within the second group. The methods considered were subject to a comparative analysis using the following criteria: possible fast realization, the ability to counteract the doubling of greenhouse gases, availability of natural analogs, impact on geophysical systems within natural variations, the absence of unacceptable ecological implications, possibility, if necessary, to immediately halt the action. The comparison showed that the use of stratospheric sulfate aerosols can be the most effective. It is emphasized that all geo-engineering directions can be realized simultaneously with the measures stipulated by the Kyoto Protocol.
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