High-Carotinoid Triticale: Breeding and Use
It is shown that the concept of carotene includes several substances (carotene, xanthophyll and its ethers), which play an important role in the metabolism of photosynthetic plants and then in the storage of seeds. They are of no less importance for the technological properties of grain and the products of its processing, for human nutrition. The nature of the inheritance of this property turned out to be peculiar: for example, heterosis was observed in 7% of the combinations, depression in 41%, and intermediate inheritance in the remaining. Highly carotenoid (HC) recombinants of transgressive triticale were isolated from populations with heterosis in F1 and prolonged formation. The possibility of increasing the intensity of HC by backcrosses with donors of HC was determined. The dominant role of HC donors was revealed. Also, the creation of such triticale is possible with the help of chemical mutagenesis. Technologies for the preparation of flour, different cereals, and flakes have been developed. At the same time, the concentration of carotenoids of the HC triticale was revealed mainly in the endosperm of the grain, which makes it possible to increase their percentage content in grain products (cereals, flour, etc.), as well as products from them by 13% on average. Products from the predominant number of HC triticale (winter and spring) are not inferior in quality to the spaghetti prepared from spring durum wheat.
Keywordshigh-carotenoid triticale breeding backcrossing mutagenesis technology processing grouts flour spaghetti
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