The ribology of joints and problems of modern orthopedics

  • L. S. Pinchuk
  • Yu. M. Chernyakova
  • V. A. Goldade


The paper presents a review of current trends in biotribiology. The authors discuss the extent of the achievements in this field at the turn of the 21st century. This period is distinguished by the discovery of liquid-crystalline and quasi-electret states revealed by AFM in the articular lubricating fluid; new boundary lubrication mechanisms, which are realized by organic super-lubricants at the nanolevel; and methods for in vitro study of friction in joints using electromagnetic fields able to simulate the natural articular biofield. A relationship is traced between biotribology and the chief directions in contemporary orthopedics, namely: 1) articular chondroprotection exercised via local therapeutic methods based on tribomonitoring of pharmaceutic substances; 2) injection of drugs based on blood serum; 3) development of a new generation of articular endoprostheses able to simulate the biophysical properties of synovial joints. It is shown that progress in modern biotribology has provided scientific substantiatiation of orthopedic treatment procedures. The ideas advanced by I.V. Kragelskii in resolving various engineering problems have proven fruitful in biotribology, which deals with living tissues and biological fluids.

Key words

biotribology synovial fluid biophysical field boundary lubrication superlubricant 


  1. 1.
    Kupchinov, B.I., Rodnenkov, V.G., Bobrysheva, S.N., and Belyi, V.A., To the Question on the Mechanism of Articulation Functioning as a Friction Joint, Dokl. Akad. Nauk BSSR, 1985, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 463–465.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pinchuk, L.S., Chernyakova, Yu.M., Kadolich, Zh.V., Nikolaev, V.I., and Beloenko, E.D., Investigation of Structural Changes in Synovia by the Electret-Thermal Analysis, Vest. Traumat. i Ortoped. im. N. N. Priorova, 2005, no. 3, pp. 57–61.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chernyakova, Yu.M., Kadolich, Zh.V., Pinchuk, L.S., Tsvetkova, E.A., and Nikolaev, V.I., The Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Tribological Characteristics of Synovial Fluid, J. of Friction and Wear, 2003, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 636–641.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zalmanov, A.S., Tainaya mudrost’ chelovecheskogo organizma (Mysterious Wisdom of Human Organism), Rostov-on-Don: Feniks, 2006.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Davis, D.V., Properties of Synovial Fluid, Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs, 1967, vol. 181, no. 3J, pp. 25–29.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dowson, D., Models of Lubrication in Human Joints, Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs., 1967, vol. 181, no. 3J, pp. 45–54.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pavlova, V.N., Sinovial’naya sreda sustavov (Synovial Medium of Joints), Moscow: Meditsyna, 1980.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brand, R.A., Joint Lubrication, ch. 13 in: The Scientific Basis of Orthopaedics, London: Elsevier, 1987, pp. 373–386.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beninghoff, A., Form und Bau der Gelenkknorpel in ihrem Besiehungen zu Funktion, Zeitschr. Zellforsch., 1925, no. 2, pp. 783–862.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mau, B.K., The Role of Lubrication in Biomechanics of Joints, Trans. ASME, 1969, no. 2, pp. 131–141.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mansour, J.M. and Mow, V.C. On the Natural Lubrication of Synovial Joints: Normal and Degenerate, Trans. ASME, 1977, vol. F99, no. 2, pp. 163–173.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grubin, A.N., Fundamentals of Hydrodynamic Theory of Lubrication of Heavy-Loaded Cylindrical Surfaces, Trudy TsNIITM, 1949, no. 30, pp. 126–184.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dowson, D. and Higginson, G.R., Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication. The Fundamentals of Roller and Gear Lubrication, Oxford: Pergamon, 1966.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marnell, P. and White, R.K. Quantitative Analysis of Joint Lubrication, Wear, 1980, vol. 61, pp. 203–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Charnley, J., How Your Joints are Lubricated, Triangle, 1966, no. 4, pp. 175–183.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Unswort, A., Dowson, D., and Wright, V., The frictional Behavior of Human Synovial Joints, part. 1: Natural joints, Trans. ASME, 1975, vol. F97, no. 3, pp. 369–376.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    McCutchen, C.W., The Frictional Properties of Animal Joints, Wear, 1962, no. 5, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fein, R.S., Are Synovial Joints Squeezed-Film Lubricated? Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs., 1966–1967, vol. 181, pp. 125–137.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Walker, P.S., Dowson, D., Longfild, M.D., et al., Boosted Lubrication in Synovial Joint by Fluid Entrapment and Enrichment, Ann. Rheum. Dis., 1968, vol. 27, pp. 512–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clarke, I.C., Contini, R., and Kenedi, R.M., Friction and Wear Studies of Articular Cartilage: a Scanning Electron Microscope Study, Trans. ASME, 1975, vol. F97, no. 3, pp. 358–368.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wright V., Dowson, D., and Kerr, J., The Structure of Joints, part IV: Articular Cartilage, Int. Rev. Connect. Tissue. Res., 1973 vol. 6, pp. 105–124.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Davis, W.H.J., Lee, S.L., and Sokoloff, L., A Proposed Model of Boundary Lubrication by Synovial Fluid: Structuring of Boundary Water, Trans. ASME, 1979, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 185–192.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kadolich, Zh.V., Physical Modification of Metal-Polymer Joints Aimed at Increasing Wear Resistance by Means of Modifying Biophysical Properties of Natural Joints, Cand. Sci. Dissertation, Gomel: MPRI NASB, 2002.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Braun, G. and Walken, D., Zhidkie kristaly i biologicheskie struktury (Liquid Crystals and Biological Structures), Moscow: Mir, 1982.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kupchinov, B., Ermakov, S., Rodnenkov, V., Bobrycheva, S., and Beloenko, E., The Effect of Liquid Crystals on Joints Lubrication, Wear, 1994, vol. 171, pp. 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kupchinov, B.I., Ermakov, S.F., and Beloenko, E.D., Biotribologiya sinovial’nykh sustavov (Biotribology of Synovial Joints), Minsk: Vedy, 1997.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hills, B.A. and Crawford, R.W., Normal and Prosthetic Synovial Joints are Lubricated by Surface-Active Phospholipid. A hypothesis, J. of Arthroplasty, 2003, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 499–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bell, J., Tipper, J.L., Ingham, E., et al., The influence of Phospholipid Concentration in Protein-Containing Lubricants on the Wear of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene in Articular Hip Joints, Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs., 2001, vol. H, pp. 215–259.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jay, G.D., Lubricin and Surfacing of Artificial Joints, Current Opinion in Orthopaedics, 2004, no. 15, pp. 355–359.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Swann, D.A., Silver, F.H., Slayter, H.S., et al., The Molecular Structure and Lubricating Ability of Lubricin Isolated from Bovine and Human Synovial Fluids, Biochem. J., 1985, no. 225, pp. 195–201.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schumacher, B.L., Block, J.A., Schmid, T.M., et al. A Novel Proteoglican Synthesized and Secreted by Chondrocytes of the Superficial Zone of Articular Cartilage, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 1994, no. 311, pp. 144–152.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tadmor, R., Chen, N., Israelachvili, J., Normal and Shear Forces Between Mica and Model Membrane Surfaces with Absorbed Hyaluronan, Macromolecules, 2003, no. 36, pp. 9516–9526.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chernyakova, Yu.M. and Pinchuk, L.S., Synovial Articulation as a Smart Friction Joint, J. of Friction and Wear, 2007, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 410–417.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Smart Materials and Structures, Friend, C.M., Ed., London: Chapmen and Hall, 1994.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tsurko, V.V., Osteorthrosis: Geriatric Problem, Rus. Med. J., 2005, vol. 13, no. 24, pp. 1627–1631.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pinchuk, L.S., Chernyakova, Yu.M., Tsvetkova, E.A., Kadolich, Zh.V., Nikolaev, V.I., Zotov, S.V. and Kravtsov, A.G., BY Patent no. 9451, Afits. Byull., 2007, no. 3, p. 45.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chernyakova, Yu.M., Kadolich, Zh.V., Tsvetkova, E.A., Nikolaev, V.I., Ermakov, S.F., and Beloenko, E.D., BY Patent no. 9059, Afits. Byull., 2007, no. 2, p. 138.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chernyakova, Yu.M., Kadolich, Zh.V., Pinchuk, L.S., et al., Tribological Properties of Synovial Fluid as a Criterion of Functional Lubrication Starvation in Joints, Dokl. NANB 2004, vol.48, no. 4, pp. 75–79.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mironov, S.P., Omeliyanenko, N.P., Sherepo, K.M., et al., Morphology of Tissue Components of Hip Joint in Experimental Animals at Simulation of Osteoarthrosis, Vest. Traumat. i Ortoped. im. N.N. Priorova, 2006, no. 1, pp. 57–63.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Knoll, J., Analyse von Druckverteilung und Schmierfilmbildung im Künstlichen Hüftgelenk, Schmiertechnik und Tribologie, 1978, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 43–46.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chernyakova, Yu.M., Optimization of Diagnostics and Therapy of Synovitis by Means of Control of Biophysical Properties of Synovial Fluid (Experimental and Clinical Investigation), Cand. Sci. Dissertation (Med.), Minsk: NIITO, 2006.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pinchuk, L.S., Chernyakova, Yu.M., Kadolich, Zh.V., and Nikolaev, V.I., Tribological Monitoring of Drugs Used for Curing Joint Diseases, Bull. Exp. Biol. i Med., 2006, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 278–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Makeu, E., Aural, X., and Dougados, M., A hyaluronan Preparation (500–730 kDA) in Treatment of Osteoarthritis: a Review of Clinical Trials with Hyalgan, Int. J. Clin. Pract., 2002, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 804–813.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vad, V.B., Sakalkale, D., Sculco, T.P., et al., Role of Hylan G-F20 in Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joint, Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 2003, vol. 84, pp. 1224–1226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Axe, M.J. and Shields, C.L., Potential Application of Hyaluronans in Orthopaedics. Degenerative Joint Disease, Surgical Recovery, Trauma and Sports Injuries, Sports. Med., 2005, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 853–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Beloenko, E.D., Chernyakova, Yu.M., and Pinchuk, L.S., Tribological Substantiation of Chondroprotection Method Using Blood and Hyaluronate Self-Serum, Dokl. NANB, 2007, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 72–75.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chernyakova, Yu.M., Pinchuk, L.S., Beloenko, E.D., Kadolich, Zh.V., Tsvetkova, E.A., and Nikolaev, B.Y., Patent no. 9146, Afits. Byull., 2007, no. 2, p. 54.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pinchuk, L.S., Chernyakova, Yu.M., Kadolich, Zh.V., Tsvetkova, E.A., and Nikolaev, V.I., BY Patent Application no. 20050858, Afits. Byull., 2007, no. 3, p. 8.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kragelskii, I.V., Frictional Interaction of Solids, J. of Friction and Wear, 1980, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 12–29.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pinchuk, L.S., Tsvetkova, E.A., and Nikolaev, V.I., A Frictional Material of Endoprosthesis with Cartilage-Simulating Structure, J. of Friction and Wear, 1995, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 504–510.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tsvetkova, E., Kadolich, Z., and Pinchuk, L., Polymer Insert of Hip Joint Cup Endoprosthesis with Modified Friction Surface, Appl. Mech. and Engr., 1999, no. 4, pp. 247–250.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pinchuk, L.S., Polymers in Joint Endoprostheses, in: Problemy sovremennogo materialovedeniya. Trudy 3ei sessii nauchnogo soveta po novym materialam MAAN (Problems of Modern Materials Science. Proc. 3rd Session of Scientific Council on New materials MAAN), Kiev, 1998, pp. 35–42.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kadolich, Z.V., Pinchuk, L.S., and Tsvetkova, E.A., Friction Mechanism of UHMWPE Microporous Material, J. of Friction and Wear, 2002, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 78–81.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pinchuk, L., Gradzka-Dahlke, M., Kadolich, Z., Tsvetkova, E., and Dabrowski, J., Friction Surface Study of a Microporous Material for Endoprosthetics, Acta of Bioeng. and Biomech., 2001, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 195–201.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pinchuk, L.S., Kadolich, Z.V., Tsvetkova, E.A., Struk, V.I., Nikolaev, V.I., Ovchinnikov, Ya.B., Karev, S.I., and Boltrukevich, S.I., RU Patent no. 2268685, Byull. Izobr., 2006, no. 3, p. 173.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Atik, S.A.R., Single-Pole Endoprosthetics of the Hip Joint in Elderly and Old-Age People (Experimental and Clinical Investigation), Cand. Sci. Dissertation, Minsk: BelNIITO, 2004.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pinchuk, L. S., Nikolaev, V. I., Tsvetkova, E. A., and Goldade, V. A., Tribology and Biophysics of Artificial Joints, London: Elsevier, 2006.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pinchuk, L.S., Tsvetkova, E.A., Boltrukevich, S.I., Kadolich, Z.V., Nikolaev, V.I., and Atik, S.A.R., BY Patent no. 8623, Afits. Byull., 2006, no. 5, p.36.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pinchuk, L.S., Tsvetkova, E.A., and Kadolich, Z.V., Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Friction in Joint Endoprostheses, J. of Friction and Wear, 2001, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 550–554.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tsvetkova, E.A., Kadolich, Z.V., Goldade, V.A., and Pinchuk, L.S., Structural Changes in the Frictional Surface Layer of Polymeric Endoprosthesis Insert, Mech. of Comp. Mater., 2000, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 607–620.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. S. Pinchuk
    • 1
  • Yu. M. Chernyakova
    • 2
  • V. A. Goldade
    • 1
  1. 1.Belyi Meytal-Polymer Research InstituteNational Academy of Sciences of BelarusGomelBelarus
  2. 2.Gomel State Medical UniversityGomelBelarus

Personalised recommendations