Russian Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals

, Volume 59, Issue 6, pp 709–718 | Cite as

Conceptual Protection Model for Especially Heat-Proof Materials in Hypersonic Oxidizing Gas Flows

  • V. S. TerentievaEmail author
  • A. N. AstapovEmail author


This article is a continuation of the publication cycle of the authors on the subject matter “Multifunctional Protective Coatings for Especially Heat-Loaded Constructional Elements of Hypersonic Systems.” A conceptual physicochemical operation model of the protective coating in a high-speed high-enthalpy oxidizing gas flow taking into account and leveling main surface fracture sources by the gas flow is proposed. The model is successfully implemented when developing a whole series of alloys of the Si–TiSi2–MoSi2–B–Y system intended to form thin-layer coatings from them by any method of the stratified deposition providing the reproduction of the structure, phase composition, and morphological features of the deposited material in the coating. During the deposition, the formation of a microcomposition layer is provided. This layer is a refractory silicide framework with the cells filled by a low-melting (relative to the melting point of framework-forming phases) eutectic structural component. This layer transforms into a multilayer system with a series of functional layers (anticatalytic, reradiative, antierosion, heat-proof, and barrier-compensation layers) of micron and submicron thicknesses during high-temperature interaction with oxygen-containing media (the synergetic effect). The protection ability is provided by the formation of self-restoring oxide vitreous film based on alloyed silica. The self-restoring effect consists of rapid filling of random defects with a viscoplastic eutectic component and protective film formation accelerated when compared with known coatings. The high resistance to the erosion carryover is provided by the presence of a branched dendritic-cellular refractory framework. Coatings MAI D5 and MAI D5U, designed in the scope of the proposed concept, are successfully approved in high-speed high-enthalpy oxygen-containing gas flows affecting the samples and constructional elements made of especially heat-proof material of various classes (niobium alloys, carbon–carbon and carbon–ceramic composite materials, and graphitized carbon materials). The protective ability of coatings of 80–100 μm in thickness in flows with the Mach number of 5–7 and enthalpy of 30–40 MJ/kg is no shorter than 600 s at Tw = 1800°C, 200 s at 1900°C, and 60 s at 2000°C, including the constructive elements with sharp edges.


heat-proof material heat resistance high-temperature gas corrosion protective coating erosion high-speed flow hypersound gas-dynamic tests 



This study was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, state order no. 9.1077.2017/PCh.

We thank specialists V.N. Avrashkov (Moscow Aviation Institute), B.E. Zhestkov (TsAGI), and A.N. Gordeev (Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences) for collaborating with us in our work.


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© Allerton Press, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)MoscowRussia

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