Investigation into the Structure and Properties of Solders Based on Aluminum and Zinc in the Form of Cast Rods of a Small Cross Section
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Solders of the Al–Cu–Si system (A34 brand) and Zn–Al–Cu system (Welco52 brand) are investigated. It is found that the A34 solder (Al–28% Cu–6% Si) melts and crystallizes in a narrow temperature range (~18°C). Solidus and liquidus temperatures of the A34 solder are ~508 and ~526°С, respectively. Solders of the Zn–Al–Cu system (Zn–4% Al–2.5% Cu) have an eutectic composition that provides melting and crystallization at a constant temperature of ~389°С. Densities of studied solders in liquid and solid states are investigated. Their values for the solder of the A34 brand are 3.02 and 3.32 g/cm3, respectively, and, for the zinc solder, 6.28 and 6.69 g/cm3. The influence of casting conditions on the structure of cast alloys in the form of rods with a cross-section area of 13, 10, and 5 mm2 is investigated. The main structural components of solder alloys refine with a decrease in the cross-section area. Dendrites of the aluminum-based solid solution and CuAl2 phase refine in the microstructure of the A34 solder. Dendrite sizes of the zinc-based solid solution most noticeably decrease in the zinc solder. The largest castability is characteristic of alloys fabricated from rod solders with a cross section of 5 mm2 for studied gaps in the sampling of 2.0, 1.5, and 1.0 mm. The zinc solder of the eutectic composition has the best castability when compared with the A34 solder: this characteristic for the melt formed from the zinc-based solder rod with a cross section of 5 mm2 and a gap width in the sampling of 2.0 mm is 100% (the melt of the A34 solder formed from the rod of the same cross section has a castability of 98%). The results of experiments on soldering plates made of the AK12 alloy and sheets made of the AMts alloy show the presence of a tight boundary in the “solder–base material” system, as well as the absence of discontinuities in the form of pores and unsoldered regions. An insignificant interpenetration of solder alloys into the base material is observed, especially when soldering cast plates made of the AK12 alloy.
Keywords:lead-free solders Al–Cu–Si and Zn–Al–Cu systems cast solders cast solder structure density castability index soldering
This study was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation from means assigned to the developmental program of the Samara State Technical University as the Basic University.
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