Russian Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals

, Volume 59, Issue 6, pp 637–642 | Cite as

Study of the Structural Evolution of a Two-Phase Titanium Alloy during Thermodeformation Treatment

  • A. Yu. ChuryumovEmail author
  • V. V. Spasenko
  • D. M. Hazhina
  • A. V. MikhaylovskayaEmail author
  • A. N. SoloninEmail author
  • A. S. ProsviryakovEmail author


The behavior of the Ti–3.5Fe–4Cu–0.2B two-phase titanium alloy during thermal-deformation treatment under uniaxial compression is investigated. Boron is introduced to form a fine-grained structure in a cast state. Alloy samples 6 mm in diameter are formed by alloying pure components in a vacuum induction furnace and subsequent accelerated crystallization in a massive copper mold. The tests for uniaxial compression with true deformation of 0.9 are performed using a Gleeble 3800 physical simulation system of thermomechanical processes at 750, 800, and 900°C and strain rates of 0.1, 1, and 10 s–1. The alloy microstructure in the initial and deformed states is investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The tests result in a model of the dependence of the flow stress on temperature and strain rate. It is shown that the recrystallization of the initial cast structure containing solid solutions based on α-Ti, β-Ti, and titanium diboride colonies occurs during pressure treatment. The volume fraction of the solid solution grains based on α-titanium decreases during deformation with an increase in temperature, while the fraction of the β phase, on the contrary, increases. Herewith, the average grain size of solid solutions based on α-Ti and β-Ti varies insignificantly after deformation according to almost all studied modes. It is shown that the preferential mode of the pressure heat treatment for attaining the high complex of mechanical properties in the alloy under study is a temperature range of 750–800°C because the grain size of the α phase increases from 2.2 to 4.5 μm with an increase in temperature up to 900°C.


two-phase titanium alloy rheological model microstructure 



This study was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in the scope of state tasks to higher schools for 2017–2020, project no. 11.7172.2017/8.9.


  1. 1.
    Il’in, A.A., Kolachev, B.A., and Pol’kin I.S., Titanovye splavy. Sostav, struktura, svoistva (Titanium Alloys. Composition, Structure, Properties), Moscow: VILS–MATI, 2009.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cui, C., Hu, B., Zhao, L., and Liu, S., Titanium alloy production technology, market prospects and industry development, Mater. Design., 2011, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 1684–1691. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hayama, A.O.F., Lopes, J.F.S.C., da Silva, M.J.G., Abreu, H.F.G., and Caram, R., Crystallographic texture evolution in Ti–35Nb alloy deformed by cold rolling, Mater. Design., 2014, vol. 60, pp. 653–660. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li, C., Chen, J. H., Wu, X., and Zwaag, S., A comparative study of the microstructure and mechanical properties of α + β titanium alloys, Met. Sci. Heat Treat., 2014, vol. 56, nos. 7–8, pp. 374–380. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lu, J., Ge, P., Li, Q., Zhang, W., Huo, W., Hu, J., Zhang, Y., and Zhao, Y., Effect of microstructure characteristic on mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of new high strength Ti-1300 beta titanium alloy, J. Alloys Compd., 2017, vol. 727, pp. 1126–1135. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li, Y.-H., Chen, N., Cui, H.-T., and Wang, F., Fabrication and characterization of porous Ti–10Cu alloy for biomedical application, J. Alloys Compd., 2017, vol. 723, pp. 967–973. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shi, X., Zeng, W., Long, Y., and Zhu, Y., Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of near-α Ti–8Al–1Mo–1V alloy at different solution temperatures and cooling, J. Alloys Compd., 2017, vol. 727, pp. 555–564. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chuvil’deev, V.N., Kopylov, V.I., Nokhrin, A.V., Tryaev, P.V., Kozlova, N.A., Tabachkova, N.Yu., Lopatin, Yu.G., Ershova, A.V., Mikhaylov, A.S., Gryaznov, M.Yu., and Chegurov, M.K., Study of mechanical properties and corrosive resistance of ultrafine-grained α-titanium alloy Ti–5Al–2V, J. Alloys Compd., 2017, vol. 723, pp. 354–367. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhao, G.-H., Ketov, S.V., Jiang, J., Mao, H., Borgenstam, A., and Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V., New beta-type Ti–Fe–Sn–Nb alloys with superior mechanical strength, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2017, vol. 705, pp. 348–351. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nochovnaya, N.A., Khorev, A.I., and Yakovlev, A.L., Perspectives of alloying titanium alloys with rare earth elements, Met. Sci. Heat Treat., 2013, vol. 55, nos. 7–8, pp. 415–418. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Popov, A.A., Leder, M.O., Popova, M.A., Rossina, N.G., and Narygina, I.V., Effect of alloying on precipitation of intermetallic phases in heat-resistant titanium alloys, Phys. Met. Metallogr., 2015, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 261–266. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gaisin, R.A., Imayev, V.M., Imayev, R.M., and Gaisina, E.R., Microstructure and hot deformation behavior of two-phase boron-modified titanium alloy VT8, Phys. Met. Metallogr., 2013, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 339–347. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zadorozhnyy, V.Yu., Shchetinin, I.V., Zheleznyi, M.V., Chirikov, N.V., Wada, T., Kat, H., and Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V., Investigation of structure–mechanical properties relations of dual-axially forged Ti-based low-alloys, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015, vol. 632, pp. 88–95. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zadorozhnyy, V.Yu., Inoue, A., and Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V., Investigation of the structure and mechanical properties of as-cast Ti–Cu-based alloys, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2013, vol. 573, pp. 175–182. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zadorozhnyy, V.Yu., Kozak, D.S., Shi, X., Wada, T., Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V., and Kato, H., Mechanical properties, electrochemical behavior and biocompatibility of the Ti-based low-alloys containing a minor fraction of noble metals, J. Alloys Compd., 2018, vol. 732, pp. 915–921. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zadorozhnyy, V.Yu., Shchetinin, I.V., Chirikov, N.V., and Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V., Tensile properties of a dual-axial forged Ti–Fe–Cu alloy containing boron, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2014, vol. 614, pp. 238–242. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zadorozhnyy, V.Yu., Inoue, A., and Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V., Ti-based nanostructured low-alloy with high strength and ductility, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2012, vol. 551, pp. 82–86. 2012.04.097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Churyumov, A.Yu., Khomutov, M.G., Tsar’kov, A.A., Pozdnyakov, A.V., Solonin, A.N., Efimov, V.M., and Mukhanov, E.L., Study of the structure and mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant steel with a high concentration of boron at elevated temperatures, Phys. Met. Metallogr., 2014, vol. 115, pp. 809–813. https:// Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sellars, C.M. and McTegart, W.J., On the mechanism of hot deformation, Acta Metall., 1966, vol. 14, pp. 1136–1138. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gale, W.F. and Totemeier, T.C., Smithells Metals Reference Book, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004, 8th ed.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perez, R.A., Nakajima, H., and Dyment, F., Diffusion in α-Ti and Zr, Mater. Trans., 2003, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 2–13. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Neumann, G. and Tuijn, C., Self-Diffusion and Impurity Diffusion in Pure Metals: Handbook, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Titanovye splavy. Metallografiya titanovykh splavov (Titanium Alloys. Metallography of Titanium Alloys), Anoshkin, N.F., Ed., Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1980.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”MoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations