Steel in Translation

, Volume 49, Issue 9, pp 631–637 | Cite as

Study of the Structural Condition of Metal in Billet after Deformation in the Continuous-Casting Line

  • E. N. Smirnov
  • A. N. SmirnovEmail author
  • V. A. Sklyar
  • V. V. Mikheev
  • V. A. Belevitin
  • G. A. Orlov
  • A. P. Verzilov


This paper presents the results of the metallographic study of the structural condition of metal in the billet after soft reduction. The billet is deformed in the withdrawal and straightening unit of the continuous casting production line when there is an uncrystallized core area in the bullet. The reduction takes place due to the movement of the top driven roll. The metallographic studies reveal the crack initiation characteristics when an external deformative action is applied in the course of incomplete crystallization of continuously cast billet. They provide a well-reasoned approach to selection of techniques minimizing the number of initiation centers.


soft reduction billet defects cracks stress-strain state metallography 



  1. 1.
    Smirnov, A.N., Smirnov, E.N., Sklyar, V.A., et al., Producing structural-steel bar from continuous-cast billet, Steel Transl., 2018, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 233–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Smirnov, A.N., Kuberskii, S.V., Smirnov, E.N., et al., Influence of meniscus fluctuation in the mold on crust formation in slab casting, Steel Transl., 2017, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 476–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thome, R., Ostheimer, V., Ney, G., et al., Soft reduction in the continuous casting of billets, MPT,Metall. Plant Technol. Int., 2007, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 36–42.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smyrnov, Y.N., Belevitin, V.A., Skliar, V.A., and Orlov, G.A., Physical and computer modeling of a new soft reduction process of continuously cast blooms, J. Chem. Technol. Metall., 2015, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 589–594.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Masini, R. and Lainati, A., Latest bar mill technology, Millennium Steel, 2005, no. 7, pp. 216–227.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Minaev, A.A., Nosanev, A.G., Smirnov, E.N., et al., Unit for accelerated cooling of reinforcement bars in the line of a 330 mill after deformation, Metallurgist, 1990, vol. 34, no. 1, p. 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen, J., Jiang, G., and Pang, Y., Application of mold electromagnetic stirring in continuous casting of middle billet, J. Univ. Sci. Technol. Beijing, 2007, suppl. 1. Accessed February 12, 2018.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Weyer, A., Letzel, D., Gärtner, H., et al., US Patent 7 121 323, 2006.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Smyrnov, Y.N., Skliar, V.A., Belevitin, V.A., et al., Defect healing in the axial zone of continuous-cast billet, Steel Transl., 2016, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 325–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kukhar, V., Prysiazhnyi, A., Balalayeva, E., and Anishchenko, O., Designing of induction heaters for the edges of pre-rolled wide ultrafine sheets and strips correlated with the chilling end effect, Proc. 2017 Int. Conf. on Modern Electrical and Energy Systems (MEES), Kremenchuk Mykhailo Ostrohradskyi National University, November 15–17,2017, Piscataway, NJ: Inst. Electr. Electron. Eng., 2017, pp. 404–407.
  11. 11.
    Kukhar, V., Artiukh, V., Prysiazhnyi, A., and Pustovgar, A., Experimental research and method for calculation of ‘upsetting-with-buckling’ load at the impression-free (dieless) preforming of workpiece, E3S Web Conf., 2018, vol. 33, no. 02031. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Suzuki, M., Kimura, K., Kawami, A., and Mizutani, M., Rev. Met. (Paris), 1992, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 83–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Isobe, K., Kusano, Y., Nogushi, S., et al., Improvement of segregation of continuously cast billets by soft reduction, Proc. Int. Symp. on Near-Net-Shape Casting in the Minimills, Vancouver, Canada, August 19–23,1995, Montreal: Can. Inst. Min., Metall., Petrol., 1995, pp. 179–192.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ito, Y., Yamanaka, A., and Wanatabe, T., Rev. Met. (Paris), 2000, vol. 10, pp. 1171–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thome, R. and Harste, K., Principles of billet soft-reduction and consequences for continuous casting, ISIJ Int., 2006, vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 1839–1844.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Serov, A.I., Creation and development of electrometallurgical complex JSC Elektrostal (Kurakhovo, Ukraine), Met. Li’te Ukr., 2010, nos. 9–10, pp. 10–14.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smirnov, E.N., Sklyar, V.A., Smirnov, O.E., et al., Behavior of structural defects of already-deformed continuous-cast bar on rolling, Steel Transl., 2018, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 289–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ogurtsov, A.P., Gress, A.V., and Nesvet, V.V., Structure and chemical heterogeneity of bloom blanks casted at the continuous casting machine of Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Plant, Protsessy Lit’ya, 2001, no. 2, pp. 18–28.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kovalenko, V.S., Metallograficheskie reaktivy: spravochnik (Metallographic Reactives: Handbook), Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1981, 3rd ed.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fridman, Ya.B. and Gordeeva, T.A., Stroenie i analiz izlomov metallov (The Structure and Analysis of Metal Fracture), Moscow: Kniga po Trebovaniyu, 2012.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Agamirov, L.V., Alimov, M.A., Babichev, L.P., et al., Physical and mechanical properties. Testing of metallic materials, in Mashinostroenie: Entsiklopediya (Machine Engineering: Encyclopedia), Mamaeva, E.I., Ed., Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 2010, vol. 2-1.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Solntsev, Yu.P. and Vologzhanina, S.A., Materialovedenie (Material Science), Moscow: Akademiya, 2011.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Botnikov, S.A., Sovremennyi atlas defektov nepreryvnolitoi zagotovki i prichiny vozniknoveniya proryvov kristallizuyushcheisya korochki metalla (A Modern Atlas of Defects of a Continuously Casted Billet and The Cases of Breakthroughs in a Crystallized Metal Crust), Volgograd, 2011, p. 97.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. N. Smirnov
    • 1
  • A. N. Smirnov
    • 2
    Email author
  • V. A. Sklyar
    • 1
  • V. V. Mikheev
    • 3
  • V. A. Belevitin
    • 4
  • G. A. Orlov
    • 5
  • A. P. Verzilov
    • 2
  1. 1.National University of Science and Technology MISISStary OskolRussia
  2. 2.Physical and Technological Institute of Metals and Alloys, National Academy of Sciences of UkraineKievUkraine
  3. 3.PJSC Donetsk Metal Rolling PlantDonetskUkraine
  4. 4.South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical UniversityChelyabinskRussia
  5. 5.Ural Federal UniversityYekaterinburgRussia

Personalised recommendations