The results of studies on the formation of nonmetallic inclusions (NMI) of the Al2O3–CaO–MgO system and pinholes in rolled steel produced at modern metallurgical complexes are presented. It is shown that the mechanism of NMI conglomerate formation on the surface of the batching cup and the submersible cup under outflowing non-calcium-treated steels containing aluminum from the tundish ladle is valid as applied to teeming with the modification of NMI. An assessment method is proposed for the efficiency of the out-of-furnace steel processing technology of obtaining steel purified from NMI and with optimally modified NMI. The proposed method consists in assessing the range of stopper movement in the course of steel teeming.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Itoh, H., Hino, M., and Ban-ya, S., Thermodynamics on the formation of spinel nonmetallic inclusion in liquid steel, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 1997, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 953–956.
Zaitsev, A.I., Rodionova, I.G., Semernin, G.V., Shaposhnikov, N.G., and Kazankov, A.Yu., New types of unfavorable nonmetallic inclusions based on MgO–Al2O3 and metallurgical factors governing their content in metal. Part 1. Reasons and mechanisms for formation in steel of nonmetallic inclusions based on alumina magnesia spinel, Metallurgist, 2011, vol. 55, nos. 1–2, pp. 107–115.
Zaitsev, A.I., Rodionova, I.G., Semernin, G.V., Shaposhnikov, N.G., and Kazankov, A.Yu., New types of unfavorable nonmetallic inclusions based on MgO–Al2O3 and metallurgical factors governing their content in metal. Part 2. Transformation mechanisms for nonmetallic inclusions based on alumina magnesia spinel. Main approaches making it possible to reduce the content of the inclusions in question in steel, Metallurgist, 2011, vol. 55, nos. 3–4, pp. 149–157.
Safronov, A.A., Movchan, M.A., Dub, V.S., et al., Production of corrosion-resistant 09ГCФ steel, Steel Transl., 2016, vol. 46, no. 2, pp 150–158.
Dub, V.S., Safronov, A.A., Movchan, M.A., et al., Effect of a secondary metallurgy technology on the types of forming nonmetallic inclusions and the corrosion resistance of steel, Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.), 2016, vol. 2016, no. 12, pp. 1135–1144.
Safronov, A.A., Dub, V.S., Orlov, V.V., et al., Regulating the formation of Al2O3–CaO–MgO inclusions in pipe-steel production, Steel Transl., 2019, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 123–130.
Beskow, K., Tripathi, N.N., Nzotta, M., et al., Impact of slag—refractory lining reactions on the formation of inclusions in steel, Ironmaking Steelmaking, 2004, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 514–518.
Yang, W., Zhang, L., Wang, X., et al., Characteristics of inclusions in low carbon Al-killed steel during ladle furnace refining and calcium treatment, ISIJ Int., 2013, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1401–1410.
Jung, I.H., Decterov, S.A., and Pelton, A.D., Computer applications of thermodynamic databases to inclusion engineering, ISIJ Int., 2004, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 527–536.
Sokolov, V.V., Foigt, D.B., Zhuravlev, I.D., et al., Development of the production of slag-forming mixtures for continuous casting of steel at West-Siberian Metal Plant, Stal’, 2004, no. 9, pp. 20–22.
Kazakov, A.A., Kovalev, P.V., Ryaboshuk, S.V., et al., Controlling the formation of non-metal inclusions in production of converter steel, Chern. Met., 2014, no. 34, pp. 43–48.
Safronov, A.A., Prilukov, S.B., Tazetdinov, V.I., and Torokhov, G.V., Comparison of the nitrogen content in ladle sample and finished products, Stal’, 2014, no. 12, pp. 29–31.
Lebedev, I.V., Improving the assimilative ability of slag melt in the intermediate ladle during continuous casting of low-carbon steels deoxidized by aluminum, Cand. Sci. (Eng.) Dissertation, Moscow: Natl. Univ. Sci. Technol., MISIS, 2014.
Safronov, A.A., Golovin, V.V., Belokozovich, Yu.B., et al., Production of continuous-cast pipe blank without large nonmetallic inclusions, Steel Transl., 2016, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 428–434.
Hayden, R. and Chakraborty, S., Steel cleanliness improvements at National Steel Great Lakes Division, No. 2 caster, Rev. Metall. (Paris), 1996, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 511–521.
Lukavaya, M.S. and Mikhailov, G.G., Analysis of the tightening of immersed nozzles during continuous casting of steel, Vestn. Yuzhn. Ural. Gos. Univ., 2006, no. 10, pp. 69–72.
Goldobina, K., Physical and mathematical modeling of hydrodynamic processes and the distribution of nonmetallic inclusions within the intermediate ladle of the double-strand slab continuous casting machine. https://pandia.ru/text/78/335/318.php.
Wünnenberg, K. and Förster, H., Stahl Eisen, 1984, vol. 104, no. 13, pp. 581–585.
Shchukina, L.I., tuvaev, V.F., Komolova, O.A., and Grigorovich, K.V., The causes of reduced spillability of sheet steel at national enterprises, Trudy XV Mezhdunarodnogo kongressa staleplavil’shchikov (Proc. XV Int. Congr. of Steel Makers), Moscow, 2018, pp. 357–362.
Translated by O. Polyakov
About this article
Cite this article
Safronov, A.A., Dub, V.S., Orlov, V.V. et al. On the Mechanism of Conglomerate Formation from Nonmetallic Inclusions Based on Al2O3–CaO–MgO System in the Production of Steel at Modern Metallurgical Complexes. Steel Transl. 49, 622–630 (2019) doi:10.3103/S0967091219090110
- nonmetallic inclusions
- out-of-furnace treatment
- modification of nonmetallic inclusions
- uninterrupted teeming of steel
- tundish ladle
- pipe steels