Formulae for determining heterodyne system spurious frequencies that coincide with desired output frequency
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In this paper, formulae to determine the lowest order and other higher order spurious frequencies that coincide with desired output signal frequencies of mixers have been derived. The proposed formulae give general expressions that are suitable for any order of heterodyne mixing. The formulae have been verified using a suitable example and compared with the simulation results obtained through the radio frequency simulation software of Advanced Design System. The formulae directly reveal the order of the troublesome spurious frequencies that the designers would encounter in heterodyne systems. In comparison with these direct formulae, the results of existing spurious analysis software are based on the maximum order of simulation carried out. Based on these simulations, the coinciding spurious components have to be manually sorted out. Proposed formulae are quick tools used by the microwave system and circuit designers for choosing and finalizing heterodyne frequencies in their designs without the need for any simulations.
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