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Solid Fuel Chemistry

, Volume 52, Issue 6, pp 396–405 | Cite as

Ecological Consequences of the Development of Shale Formations Containing Toxic Elements

  • S. A. PunanovaEmail author
  • M. Ya. ShpirtEmail author
Article

Abstract—The average concentrations of trace elements, including toxic elements, in shales from various shale basins of the world are reported. The concentrations of a number of elements significantly exceeding the Clarke numbers for clay rocks in the Kenderlyk shale of the Republic of Kazakhstan, in the Domanic sediments of the Volga–Ural oil and gas bearing basin, some American formations (Barnett), etc., were noted. It was demonstrated that the concentrations of potentially toxic elements in many deposits were higher than their average values in clays and other sedimentary rocks. The release of potentially toxic elements into the environment significantly increased as a result of thermal effects on the formation, which can occur on the development of similar deposits of fossil fuels and in some hydrocarbon conversion processes. This was confirmed by natural observations and laboratory studies. On the hydraulic fracturing, which is widely used in the development of shale formations by the horizontal drilling method, toxic elements from both shales and their naphthide components can be released into the environment. In the development of shale deposits, additional studies are required for the monitoring of the trace element composition of shale formations to exclude environmental risks.

Keywords:

trace elements potentially toxic elements Clarke numbers shale formations development naphthides environmental risks organic matter 

Notes

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Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oil and Gas Research Institute, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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