Effects of N-terminal nociceptin fragment on the anxiety level of American cockroach Periplaneta americana in the “open field” during changes in light intensity



Injection of N-terminal nociceptin fragment (FN) had an anxiolytic effect on the anxiety level of the cockroach Periplaneta americana during the “open field” test in both red light and varying light. The intensity of horizontal activity (HA) and number of changes in direction (CD) by insects were taken as an indicator of their anxiety level. FN decreased HA in red light to 48% (100 μg/g) and 63% (200 μg/g) with CD of 39% (100 μg/g) relative to control. Tetrapeptide at a dose of 50 μg/g had no significant effect on HA and CD. With the light stimulus increased to 6.0 W, HA and CD reached 230% and 192%, respectively, relative to control. In this case, FN injection inhibited further HA increase in bright light to 37% (100 μg/g) and 50% (200 μg/g). CD also reduced to 39% (100 μg/g) and 68% (200 μg/g) relative to control.


N-terminal nociceptin fragment anxiety locomotor activity insects 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Jenck, F., Moreau, J.L., Martin, J.R., and Orphanin, F.Q., Acts ad an anxiolytic to attenuate behavioral responses to stress, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1997, vol. 94, pp. 14854–14858.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nishi, M., Takeshima, H., Mori, M., and Nakagawara, K., Structure and chromosomal mapping of gene for the mouse K-opioid receptor and an opioid receptor homologue (MORC), Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 1994, vol. 205, pp. 1353–1357.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mogil, J.S. and Pasternak, G.W., The molecular and behavioral pharmacology of the orphanin FQ/nociceptin peptide and receptor family, Pharmacol. Rev., 2001, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 381–415.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leon-Olea, M., Miller-Perez, C., Cruz, R., and Anton, B., Immunohistochemical localization and electrophysiological action of nociceptin/orphanin-FQ in the snail (Helix aspersa) neurons, Neurosci. Lett., 2001, vol. 316, no. 3, pp. 141–144.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kavaliers, M. and Perrot-Sinal, T.S., Pronociceptin effects of the neuropeptide, nocicepti, in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis, Peptides, 1996, vol. 17, pp. 763–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miller-Perez, C., Sanchez-Islas, E., Pellicer, F., and Rodriguez-Manzo, G., Pole of nociceptin/orphanin FQ and the pseudopeptide [Phe1 Psi (CH2NH)Gly2]-nociceptin (1-13)-NH2 and their interaction with classic opioids in the modulation of termonociceptin in the land snail Helix aspersa, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2008, vol. 581, pp. 77–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rialas, C.M., Weeks, B., Cadet, P., and Goumon, Y., Nociceptin, endomorph-1 and -2 do not interact with immune and neural μ3 opiate receptor, Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 2000, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 516–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Meunier, J.C., Mollereau, C., Toll, L., and Suaudeau, C., Isolation and structure of the endogenous agonist of opioid receptor-like ORL1 receptor, Nature, 1995, vol. 377, pp. 532–535.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ivanova, E.A., Sarycheva, S.Yu., Dubynin, V.A., et al., Behavioral effects of original tetrapeptide, an analog of N-terminal nociceptin fragment, Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., 2012, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 177–181.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gritsai, O.B., Dubynin, V.A., and Ashmarin, I.P., The effect of mammalian anxiety factors on insects. The action of the corticoliberin 2–4 fragment on the behavior of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol., 1996, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 440–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gritsai, O.B., Dubynin, V.A., Pilipenko, V.E., and Petrov, O.P., Effect of peptide and non-peptide opioids on the defensive reaction of the cockroach Periplaneta americana in the “hot chamber”, Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol., 2004, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gritsai, O.B., Dubynin, V.A., Bespalova, Zh.D., and Pilipenko, V.E., Effects of several exorphins and endorphins on the escape reaction of the cockroach Periplaneta americana under elevated temperature conditions, Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol., 2009, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 391–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fernandes, F., Misilmeri, M.A., Filger, J., and Devine, D.P., Nociceptin/orphanin FQ increases anxiety-related behavior and circulating levels corticosterone during neophobic test of anxiety, Neuropsychopharmacology, 2004, vol. 29, pp. 59–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ivanov, V.D., Insect pheromones, Soros. Obraz. Zh., Ser. Biol., 1998, no. 6, pp. 29–34.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Caleo, G., Cueriini, R., Rizzi, A., Salvadori, S., and Regoli, D., Pharmacology of nociceptin and its receptor: a novel therapeutic target, Br. J. Pharmacol., 2000, vol. 129, no. 7, pp. 1261–1283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kamei, J., Matsunawa, Y., Miyata, S., and Tanaka, S., Effect of nociceptin on the exploratory behavior of mice in the hole-board test, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2004, vol. 489, no. 1, pp. 77–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Florin, S., Suaudeau, C., Meunier, J.C., and Costentin, J., Nociceptin stimulates locomotion and exploratory behaviour in mice, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 1996, vol. 317, pp. 9–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frantsevich, L.I., Electrical responses of neurons of the visual part of the brain of the honeybee Apis mellifera, in Fiziologiya i biokhimiya bespozvonochnykh (Physiology and Biochemistry of Invertebrates), Leningrad: Nauka, 1968, pp. 105–110.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chaika, S.Yu., Neiromorfologiya nasekomykh (Neuromorphology of Insects), Moscow: Moskva, 2010.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li, Y.S. and Strausfeld, N.J., Morphology and sensory modality of mushroom body efferent neurons in the brain of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, J. Comp. Neurol., 1997a, vol. 387, pp. 631–665.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mizunami, M., Weibrecht, J.M., and Strausfeld, N.J., Mushroom bodies of the cockroach: their participation in place memory, Comp. Neurol, 1998, vol. 402, pp. 520–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations