Moscow University Physics Bulletin

, Volume 72, Issue 6, pp 640–646 | Cite as

Dosimetry Investigation and Evaluation for Removing Flattening Filter Configuration of Linac: Monte Carlo Study

  • Mohamed Bencheikh
  • Abdelmajid Maghnouj
  • Jaouad Tajmouati
  • Abdessamad Didi
Biophysics and Medical Physics
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

The objective of this study is to build a Monte Carlo geometry of Varian Clinac 2100 linear accelerator as realistically as possible and then to investigate the removing of flattening filter impact on dosimetry for a high radiotherapy efficiency. Monte Carlo codes used in this work were BEAMnrc code to simulate photons beam and DOSXYZnrc code to examinate absorbed dose in water phantom. PDDs and beam profiles were calculated for 6 × 6 cm2 and 10 × 10 cm2 field sizes. Good agreement was found between calculated PDD and beam profile compared to measurements. Gamma index acceptance rate was more than 98% of both distribution comparisons PDDs and dose profiles and our results were more developed and accurate. Varian Clinac 2100 linear accelerator was accurately modeled using Monte Carlo codes: BEAMnrc, DOSXYZnrc and BEAMDP codes package. Varian Clinac 2100 with removing flattening filer could increase the dose by a gain was approximately 80% for 6 × 6 cm2 field size and it was approximately 110% for 10 × 10 cm2 at the build-up dose region but for all depth in water phantom, the dose of without FF configuration of linac was increased by more than 40% of dose of with FF configuration of linac.

Keywords

Monte Carlo simulation photon dosimetry calculation BEAMnrc code removing flattening filter linac modeling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    P. Mayles, A. Nahum, and J. C. Rosenwald, in Handbook of Radiotherapy Physics Theory and Practice (Taylor & Francis, 2007), pp. 452–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. S. Chang, F. D. Lasley, I. J. Das, M. S. Mendonca, and J. R. Dynlacht, Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology (Springer, New York, 2014), pp. 77–92.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. B. Podgorsak, Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook For Teachers and Students (IAEA, Vienna, 2005), pp. 161–216.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Jayaraman and L. H. Lanzl, Clinical Radiotherapy Physics (Springer, Berlin, 2004), pp. 189–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. B. Podgorsak, Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists (Springer, Heidelberg, 2010), pp. 277–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Absorbed Dose Determination in External Beam Radiotherapy (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 2000), pp. 110–133.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. W. O. Rogers, B. Walters, and I. Kawrakow, BEAMnrc Users Manual (Ottawa, 2013), pp. 12–254.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. Walters, I. Kawrakow, and D. W. O. Rogers, DOSXYZnrc Users Manual (Ottawa, 2013), pp. 9–103.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. W. O. Rogers, I. Kawrakow, J. P. Seuntjens, B. Walters, and H. E. Mainegra, NRC User Codes for EGSnrc (Ottawa, 2013), pp. 6–83.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. A. Low, W. B. Harms, S. Mutic, and J. A. Purdy, “A technique for the quantitative evaluation of dose distributions,” Med. Phys. 25, 656–661 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. A. Low and J. F. Dempsey “Evaluation of the gamma dose distribution comparison method,” Med. Phys. 30, 2455–2464 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. C. E. McGowan, B. A. Faddegon, and C. M. Ma, STATDOSE for 3D Dose Distributions (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 2013), pp. 5–10.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Sheikh-Bagheri and D. W. Rogers, “Sensitivity of megavoltage photon beam Monte Carlo simulations to electron beam and other parameters,” Med. Phys. 29, 379–390 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Sheikh-Bagheri and D. W. Rogers, “Monte Carlo calculation of ninemegavoltage photon beam spectra using the BEAM code,” Med. Phys. 29, 391–402 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Asghar, M. Parinaz, K. Ahmad, and F. Alireza, “Dosimetric properties of a flattening filter-free 6-MV photon beam: A Monte Carlo study,” Radiat. Med. 25, 315–324 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Bencheikh, A. Maghnouj, and J. Tajmouati, “Photon beam softening coefficient determination with slab thickness in small filed size: Monte Carlo study,” Phys. Part. Nucl. Lett. 14, 963–970 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Bencheikh, A. Maghnouj, and T. Tajmouati, “Photon beam softening coefficients evaluation for a 6MeV photon beam for an aluminum slab: Monte Carlo study using BEAMnrc code, DOSXYZnrc code and BEAMDP code,” Moscow Univ. Phys. Bull. 72, 263–270 (2017).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Didi, A. Dadouch, M. Bencheikh, and O. Jai, “Monte Carlo simulation of thermal neutron flux of americium–beryllium source used in neutron activation analysis,” Moscow Univ. Phys. Bull. 72, 460–464 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Aljamal and A. Zakaria, “Monte Carlo modeling of a siemens primus 6 mv photon beam linear accelerator,” Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 7, 340–346 (2013).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Palta, S. Kim, J. Li, and C. Liu, in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy: The State of the Art (Medical Physics, Madison, WI, 2003).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Commissioning and Quality Assurance of Computerized Planning Systems for Radiation Treatment of Cancer (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 2004).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Specification and Acceptance Testing of Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 2007).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Bencheikh, A. Maghnouj, and J. Tajmouati, “Energetic properties’ investigation of removing flattening filter at phantom surface: Monte Carlo study using BEAMnrc code, DOSXYZnrc code and BEAMDP code,” Phys. Part. Nucl. Lett. 14, 953–962 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Bencheikh, A. Maghnouj, J. Tajmouati, A. Didi, and A. O. Ezzati, “Validation of Monte Carlo simulation of 6MV photon beam produced by Varian Clinac 2100 linear accelerator using BEAMnrc code and DOSXYZnrc code,” Phys. Part. Nucl. Lett. 14, 780–787 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Allerton Press, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Bencheikh
    • 1
  • Abdelmajid Maghnouj
    • 1
  • Jaouad Tajmouati
    • 1
  • Abdessamad Didi
    • 1
  1. 1.LISTA Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El-MahrazUniversity of Sidi Mohamed Ben AbdellahFezMorocco

Personalised recommendations