The Formation of Helium Bubbles in Silicon Surface Layers via Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation
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The surface layers of single-crystal silicon Si(001) substrates subjected to plasma-immersion implantation with 2- and 5-keV helium ions to a dose of 5 × 1017 cm–2 were probed via grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. A surface layer formed by helium ions was found to possess a multilayer structure, wherein the upper layer is amorphous silicon, being on top of a sublayer with helium bubbles and a sublayer with a disturbed crystal structure. The in-depth electron density distribution, as well as the concentration and pore-size distribution, were established. The average pore sizes of bubbles at the above implantation energies are 4 nm and 8 nm, respectively.
Keywordsgrazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering small-angle scattering silicon ion implantation helium bubbles
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