On the incubation stage of fracture and structural transformations in continuous media under pulse energy injection
Experiments on fracture and structural transformations caused in solid and fluid media as well as in conductors and dielectrics by an intensive pulse action of the ambient medium or by directed energy fluxes reveal several effects showing that dynamic fracture (breakdown) of materials substantially differs from similar processes under slow quasistatic actions. For example, one of the main problems in modeling the dynamic strength properties of materials is related to the dependence of the limit characteristics on the loading history and methods. The dependence on the method of force application manifests itself as a large (hundreds to thousands percent) variation in the limit variables caused by variations in the action duration, amplitude, increase rate of the external action, and several other factors. While the critical value in statics can be treated as a material constant (or a quantity varying relatively slowly, at most, within several dozens percent), the experimentally determined values of the critical characteristics in dynamics are characterized by very strong instability and can differ by orders of magnitude. As a result, the dynamic behavior of a system whose description is based on these characteristics turns out to be unpredictable.
This and some other specific features of material behavior under pulse actions are common for a series of seemingly quite different physical processes such as pulse fracture of solids, cavitation in fluids, dielectric discharge and breakdown, and phase transitions under temperature and mechanical actions of shock waves.
In the present paper, we consider examples illustrating typical dynamic effects in the abovementioned processes. We give a unified interpretation of fracture of solids and fluids, dielectric breakdown, and dynamic phase transitions using the structural-temporal approach [1–3] based on the notion of fracture incubation time.
KeywordsCavitation Dynamic Fracture Electric Breakdown Dielectric Breakdown Electric Strength
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Yu. V. Petrov, “On “Quantum” Nature of Dynamic Fracture of Brittle Solids,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 321(1), 66–68 (1991) [Soviet Math. Dokl. (Engl. Transl.)].Google Scholar
- 3.N. F. Morozov, Yu. V. Petrov, and A. A. Utkin, “On the Analysis of Spallllation in the Viewpoint of Structural Fracture Mechanics,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 313(2), 276–279 (1990) [Soviet Math. Dokl. (Engl. Transl.)].Google Scholar
- 4.N. A. Zlatin, S. M. Mochalov, G. S. Pugachev, and A. M. Bragov, “Time Dependence of the Process of Metal Failure under Intensive Loads,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 16(6), 1752–1755 (1974).Google Scholar
- 8.N. F. Morozov and Yu. V. Petrov, “On Structure-Temporal Description of the Velocity Dependence of the Dynamic Fracture Viscosity for Brittle Materials,” Izv. Akad. Nauk. Mekh. Tverd. Tela, No. 6, 100–104 (1993) [Mech. Solids (Engl. Transl.)].Google Scholar
- 9.V. K. Kedrinskii, Explosion Hydrodynamics. Experiment and Models (Vysshaya Shkola, Novosibirsk, 2000) [in Russian].Google Scholar
- 10.M. Cornfeld, Elasticity and Strength of Liquids (GITTL, Moscow, 1951) [in Russian].Google Scholar
- 11.A. S. Besov, V. K. Kedrinskii, N. F. Morozov et al., “On an Analogy Between the Initial Stages of Fracture for Solids and Fluids under Pulse Loading,” Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk 378(3), 235–238 (2001) [Russian Acad. Sci. Dokl. Math. (Engl. Transl.)].Google Scholar
- 12.A. A. Vorob’ev and G. A. Vorob’ev, Electric Breakdown and Fracture of Solid Dielectrics (Vysshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1966) [in Russian].Google Scholar
- 13.I. G. Haneft and A. V. Haneft, “Influence of the Stress Pulse Leading Front Duration on the Electric Breakdown of Ammonium Perchlorate Monocrystals,” Pis’ma Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. 70(4), 42–45 (2000) [Tech. Phys. Lett. (Engl. Transl.)].Google Scholar
- 14.G. I. Kanel and S. V. Razorenov, “An Anomaly in Temperature Dependencies of the Bulk and Shear Strength of Aluminum Crystals in the Submicrosecond Range,” Fiz. Tverd. Tela 43(5), 839–845 (2001).Google Scholar
- 15.Yu. V. Petrov and E. V. Sitnikova, “Effect of Anomalous Melting Temperatures under Impact-Wave Loading,” Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk 400(4), 480–482 (2005) [Russian Acad. Sci. Dokl. Math. (Engl. Transl.)].Google Scholar
- 16.Yu. V. Petrov and E. V. Sitnikova, “Temperature Dependence of Scabbing Strength and the Effect of Anomalous Melting Temperatures under Impact-Wave Loading,” Pis’ma Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. 75(8), 71–74 (2005) [Tech. Phys. Lett. (Engl. Transl.)].Google Scholar