The role of lakes in inflow of water and biogenic substances in the polish part of the southern Baltic Sea

Abstract

Polish rivers, which make up 20% of the Baltic Sea’s catchment area, transport a load of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds into the sea. Theoretically, this load should be strongly correlated with the amount of water flowing in those rivers. However, this is not the case, especially in terms of the phosphorus compounds, since most of them come from point source pollution. The outflow load is also significantly influenced by nonpoint source pollution from farmland, which is very difficult to quantify. About 50% of nitrogen and 30% of phosphorus appear to come from nonpoint source pollution. It is important to realize that the load from nonpoint source pollution also includes the load of phosphorus and nitrogen transformed by lakes. Only recently, however, has this issue been mentioned in the specialist literature. In Polish studies on lake balance this remains a marginal issue. A limited number of observations indicate that lakes are capable of both limiting and increasing the load (mainly from the bottom sediments). This article presents some data on this issue which suggest that the roles of lakes in the transformation of the load of biogenic substances may be significant, but diverse.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bajkiewicz-Grabowska E., 2002, Circulation of master in the river-lake systems, University of Warsaw, pp. 274 (in Polish)

  2. Bajkiewicz-Grabowska E., Hillbricht-Ilkowska A., Zdanowski B., 1992, Assessment of degradation, water quality and rate of lakes’ eutrophication [in:] Jeziora Wigierskiego Parku Krajobrazowego, Zesz. Nauk PAN, Kom. „Człowiek i Środowisko” nr 3 (in Polish)

  3. Bajkiewicz-Grabowska, Zdanowski B., 2006, Phosphorus retention in lake section of Struga Siedmiu Jezior, Limnological Review, vol. 6.(5–12)

  4. Bogdanowicz R., 2004, Hydrological foctors influencing transport of selected nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from the Odra River, the Vistula River and Polish coastal riverso to the Balic Sea, Wyd. Uniw. Gdańskiego., pp. 160 (in Polish)

  5. Choiński A., 1992, Directory of Polish Lakes, Vol. 3, Wyd. Fund. „Warta”, Poznań, pp. 149 (in Polish)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Czarnecka H.(ed.), 2005, Atlas of hydrographical division, IMGW Warsaw (in Polish)

  7. Dojlido J., Niemirycz E., Krokowski J., Morawiec P., 1994, Transport of biogenic substances by the Vistula River, Wiadomości IMGW, vol. 17,issue 2, pp. 73–85 (in Polish)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Environment, 2008, Central Statistical Office, Warsaw (in Polish)

  9. Gołdyn R., 2000, Changes in biological and physico-chemical parameters of river water quality as a result of its damming in preliminary lowland reservois, Wyd. Nauk. UAM, Poznan, p. 185 (in Polish)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Gromiec M., 2004, National Program of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants, IMGW (in Polish)

  11. Gutry-Korycka M., 1982, Polish’ water balance by Lwowicz, Gosp. Wodna, Vol. 11–12

  12. HELCOM, 2004 — Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 93, The Fourth Baltic Sea Pollution Load Compilation

  13. HELCOM, 2010, Hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea, Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings

  14. Hillbricht-Ilkowska A., 1994, Evolution of the phosphorus load, and degree of endangerment, of lakes in Suwałki Landscape Park and some relationships between the load and the indices of the trophic status of lakes, Zesz. Nauk. PAN, Kom. „Człowiek i Środowisko” vol. 7: 201–214, (in Polish)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Jańczak J. (ed.), Vol. 1 (1996), Vol. 2 (1997), Vol. 3 (1999), The Atlas of Polish Lakes, Bogucki Wyd. Naukowe, Poznań, pp. Vol. 1 — 268, Vol. 2 — 256, Vol. 3 — 240, (in Polish)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Jańczak J., 1997, Changes in water quality of lakes on the bases of watermark monitoring studies of Polish lakes in the years 1991—1995, Environmental Monitoring Library, Warsaw, pp. 116, (in Polish)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Jańczak J., 2002, Optimalization of methods and measurement network over lakes and their role in transformation of flow and main biogens, Wiad. IMGW, 2: 39–54, (in Polish)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Jańczak J., Maślanka W., Nowiński K., 2007, The impact of selected Pomerania lakes on nutrient load transformation, Limn. Rev., 7(4): 187–193

    Google Scholar 

  19. Kaczmarek Z., 1978, Zasoby wodne Polski i zasady ich racjonalnego użytkowania, Nauka Polska 8, (in Polish)

  20. Kajak Z., 1998, Hydrobiology — Limnology. Freshwater ecosystems, PWN, Warsaw, pp. 355 (in Polish)

    Google Scholar 

  21. Maślanka W., Jańczak J., 2010, Circulation of biogenic substances in the Kamionka river-lake system, Limn. Rev., 10(2): 95–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Mioduszewski W., Zdanowicz A., Mannowski R., Seidl J., Dumlich D., Radczuk L., Kajewski L., 2000, Ocena ładunku azotu i fosforu ze żródeł rolniczych wnoszonego do rzek w zlewni Odry, Gosp. Wodna 11, (in Polish)

  23. Niemirycz E., 2008, Halogenated organic compounds in the environment in relation to climate change, Environmental Monitoring Library, Warsaw, pp. 1–130

    Google Scholar 

  24. Niemirycz E., 2011, Inflow of Chemical Substances by Rivers, chapter 5.2, [in:] Uścinowicz Sz. (ed.), Geochemistry of Baltic Sea Surface Sediments, in press

  25. Niemirycz E., Bogacka T., Taylor R., 1996, The Polish contribution to the Total pollution input to the Baltic Sea, Reports of Institute Meteorology and Water management, 19(3), Warsaw

  26. Niemirycz E., Taylor R., Makowski Z., 1993, Zagrożenie substancjami biogennymi wód powierzchniowych, Biblioteka Monitoringu Środowiska, Warsaw, p. 90, (in Polish)

    Google Scholar 

  27. Stachý J.(ed.), 1987, Hydrological Atlas of Poland, Warsaw, (in Polish)

  28. Taylor R., Bogacka T., Rybiński J., Niemirycz E., Żelechowska A., Makowski Z., Korzec E., 1992, Rolnicze zanieczyszczenia obszarowe w wodach powierzchniowych, Environment Monitoring Library, Warsaw, (in Polish)

    Google Scholar 

  29. Uchmański J., Szeligiewicz W., 1988, Empirical models for prediction water quality applied to the data on lakes of Poland, Ekol. Pol. 36

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jerzy Jańczak.

About this article

Cite this article

Jańczak, J., Niemirycz, E. The role of lakes in inflow of water and biogenic substances in the polish part of the southern Baltic Sea. Ocean and Hydro 40, 116 (2011). https://doi.org/10.2478/s13545-011-0048-x

Download citation

Key words

  • limnology
  • Baltic Sea
  • load of biogenic substances