Covert channels in TCP/IP protocol stack - extended version-


We give a survey of different techniques for hiding data in several protocols from the TCP/IP protocol stack. Techniques are organized according to affected layer and protocol. For most of the covert channels its data bandwidth is given.


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Correspondence to Aleksandra Mileva.

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Mileva, A., Panajotov, B. Covert channels in TCP/IP protocol stack - extended version-. centr.eur.j.comp.sci. 4, 45–66 (2014).

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  • network steganography
  • data hiding
  • Internet layer
  • transport layer
  • application layer