Covert channels in TCP/IP protocol stack - extended version-

  • Aleksandra MilevaEmail author
  • Boris Panajotov
Review Article


We give a survey of different techniques for hiding data in several protocols from the TCP/IP protocol stack. Techniques are organized according to affected layer and protocol. For most of the covert channels its data bandwidth is given.


network steganography data hiding Internet layer transport layer application layer 


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Copyright information

© Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Computer ScienceUniversity Goce DelčevŠtipThe Republic of Macedonia

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