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Morphology and anatomy of Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida and Parthenium integrifolium


The Echinacea species are native to the Atlantic drainage area of the United States of America and Canada. They have been introduced as cultivated medicinal plants in Europe. Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida are the species most often used medicinally due to their immune-stimulating properties. This review is focused on morphological and anatomical characteristics of E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida, because various species are often misidentified and specimens are often confused in the medicinal plant market.

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Mistríková, I., Vaverková, Š. Morphology and anatomy of Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida and Parthenium integrifolium . Biologia 62, 2–5 (2007).

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Key words

  • anatomy
  • morphology
  • medicinal plants
  • underground parts