Chemical Papers

, Volume 67, Issue 5, pp 517–525 | Cite as

Solubility and micronisation of phenacetin in supercritical carbon dioxide

  • Xing Wu
  • Jian-Min Yi
  • Yue-Jin Liu
  • Yong-Bing LiuEmail author
  • Pan-Liang Zhang
Original Paper


The rapid expansion of a supercritical solution (RESS) process represents an attractive prospect for producing sub-micron and nano-particles of medical compounds with low solubility. The solubility of phenacetin in supercritical carbon dioxide was measured by the analytical-isothermal method at pressures ranging from 9.0 MPa to 30.0 MPa and temperatures ranging from 308.0 K to 328.0 K. The results show that the mole fraction solubility of phenacetin in supercritical carbon dioxide is up to 10−5. Four density-based semi-empirical models were introduced to correlate the experimental data. Agreement between the model predictions and experimental data is greater with the Adachi-Lu-modified Chrastil model than with the Chrastil model, Méndez-Santiago-Teja model, and the Bartle model and the average absolute relative deviation (AARD) observed is 0.0483. The preparation of fine phenacetin particles by the RESS process under different conditions of extraction temperatures (308.0–328.0 K), extraction pressures (9.0–30.0 MPa), nozzle temperatures (373.0–393.0 K), nozzle diameters (0.1–0.8 mm), and collection distance (20.0–40.0 mm) was investigated. The size and morphology of the resultant particles were analysed by SEM. A remarkable modification in size and morphology can be obtained by condition-optimisation.


RESS micronisation phenacetin solubility solubility models 


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Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xing Wu
    • 1
  • Jian-Min Yi
    • 1
  • Yue-Jin Liu
    • 2
  • Yong-Bing Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pan-Liang Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringHunan Institute of Science and TechnologyYueyangHunan, China
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringXiang Tan UniversityXiangtanHunan, China

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