Skip to main content

Co-occurrence of Ectoparasites (Insecta and Arachnida) on Bats (Chiroptera) in an Atlantic Forest Remnant, Southeastern Brazil

Abstract

Purpose

Neotropical bats are infested by multiple ectoparasites (like bat fly and mite species) and investigations on these invertebrates on their hosts are crucial to better understand the ectoparasite-ectoparasite and ectoparasite-host associations. The goal of this study was to report ectoparasites species (bat flies and mites) on bats, emphasizing ectoparasite co-occurrences and host-ectoparasite associations. We also test if there is relationship between bat flies and mites on their hosts.

Methods

This study occurred twice a month from September 2011 to September 2012 in an Atlantic Forest remnant in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Spearman correlation was used to test relationship between bat flies and mites.

Results

We found 27 species of ectoparasites on 13 species of bats. Ectoparasites belonged to the bat fly families Streblidae and Nycteribiidae, and the mite families Spinturnicidae, Macronyssidae, Sarcoptidae, and Trombiculidae. Streblid-streblid association was more frequent, but we also recorded streblid-spinturnicid, streblid-sarcoptid and spinturnicid-spinturnicid associations. The abundance of spinturnicid species was negatively related to the abundance of streblid species. We record the first occurrence of Strebla chrotopteri associated with Chrotopterus auritus, Periglischrus paracutisternus associated with Trachops cirrhosus and Basilia juquiensis associated with Myotis riparius for Rio de Janeiro State.

Conclusion

There were several co-occurrences between different taxa and between species of the same family. These results show the importance of the integrated taxonomic record. The negative interspecific interactions between spinturnicid and streblid may affect distributions, structuring ectoparasite communities on hosts.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    Whitaker JO, Ritzi CM, Dick CW, Kunz TH, Parsons S (2009) Collecting and preserving bat ectoparasites for ecological study. In: Kunz TH (ed) Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 806–827

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Marshall AG (1982) Ecology of insect parasitic on bats. In: Kunz TH (ed) Ecology of bats. Plenum Press, New York, pp 369–401

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Bush AO, Lafferty KD, Lotz JM, Shostak AW et al (1997) Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. J Parasitol 83:575–583

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Bertola PB, Aires CC, Favorito SE, Graciolli G, Amaku M, Pinto-Da-Rocha R (2005) Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae) parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: Parasitism rates and host-parasite associations. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 100:25–32. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762005000100005

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Aguiar LMS, Antonini Y (2016) Prevalence and intensity of Streblidae in bats from a Neotropical savanna region in Brazil. Folia Parasitol 63:024. https://doi.org/10.14411/fp.2016.024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    ter Hofstede HM, Fenton MB, Whitaker JO (2004) Host and host-site specificity of bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) on Neotropical bats (Chiroptera). Can J Zool 82(4):616–626. https://doi.org/10.1139/z04-030

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Dick CW (2005) Ecology and host specificity of bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) and their chiropteran host. Thesis. Texas Tech University, Lubbock

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Tello SJ, Stevens RD, Dick CW (2008) Patterns of species co-occurrence and density compensation: a test for interspecific competition in bat ectoparasite infracommunities. Oikos 117(5):693–702. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2008.16212.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hiller T, Honner B, Page RA, Tschapka M (2018) Leg structure explains host site preference in bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) parasitizing neotropical bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Parasitol. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182018000318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Graciolli G (2019) Nycteribiidae in Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil. PNUD. https://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobrasil/1145 Accessed 15 May 2019.

  11. 11.

    Graciolli G (2019) Streblidae in Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil. PNUD. https://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobrasil/2624 Accessed 15 May 2019.

  12. 12.

    Almeida JC, Gettinger DD (2019) Spinturnicidae in Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil. PNUD. https://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobrasil/2529 Accessed 15 May 2019.

  13. 13.

    Presley SJ (2004) Ectoparasitic assemblages of Paraguayan bats: ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Thesis. Texas Tech University, Lubbock

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Almeida J, Serra-Freire N, Peracchi A (2015) Anatomical location of Periglischrus iheringi (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with the great fruit-eating bat (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Braz J Vet Parasitol Vet 24(3):361–364. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612015022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Almeida JC, Silva SSP, Serra-Freire NM, Valim MP (2011) Ectoparasites (Insecta and Acari) associated with bats in southeastern Brazil. J Med Entomol 48:753–757

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Moras LM, Ferreira L, Bernardi DO, Graciolli G, Gregorin R (2013) Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae) and mites (Acari) associated with bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a high-altitude region in southern Minas Gerais. Brazil Acta Parasitol 58(4):556–563. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0179-x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Bezerra RHS, de Vasconcelos PF, Bocchiglieri A (2016) Ectoparasites of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Atlantic forest fragments in north-eastern Brazil. Parasitol Res 115(10):3759–3765. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-5137-8

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Bezerra RHS, Bocchiglieri A (2018) Association of ectoparasites (Diptera and Acari) on bats (Mammalia) in a restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil. Parasitol Research 117:3413–3420. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-018-6034-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Gomes LAC, Pires ADS, Martins MA, Lourenço EC, Peracchi AL (2015) Species composition and seasonal variation in abundance of Phyllostomidae bats (Chiroptera) in an Atlantic Forest remnant, southeastern Brazil. Mammalia 79(1):61–68. https://doi.org/10.1515/mammalia-2013-0108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Walter DE, Krantz GW (2009) Collecting, rearing, and preparing specimens. In: Krantz GW, Walter DE (eds) A manual of acarology, Texas Tech. University Press, Lubbock, pp 83–95

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Wenzel RL, Tipton VJ, Kiewlicz A (1966) The streblid bat flies of Panama (Diptera: Calyptera: Streblidae). In: Wenzel RL, Tipton VJ (eds) Ectoparasites of Panama. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, pp 405–675

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Wenzel RL (1976) The Streblid batflies of Venezuela (Diptera: Streblidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull 20(4):1–175

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Guerrero R (1994) Catalogo de los Streblidae (Diptera: Pupipara) parasitos de murcielagos (Mammalia: Chiroptera) del Nuevo Mundo. II. Los grupos: pallidus, caecus, major, uniformis y longipes del gênero Trichobius Gervais, 1844. Acta Biol Venez 15(1):1–18

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Guerrero R (1995) Catalogo de los Streblidae (Diptera: Pupipara) parasitos de murcielagos (Mammalia: Chiroptera) del Nuevo Mundo. III. Los grupos: dugesii, dunni y phyllostomae del genero Trichobius Gervais, 1844. Acta Biol Venez 15(3–4):1–27

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Guerrero R (1996) Catalogo de los Streblidae (Diptera: Pupipara) parasitos de murcielagos (Mammalia: Chiroptera) del Nuevo Mundo. VI Streblinae Acta Biol Venez 16:1–26

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Guerrero R (1998) Notes on Neotropical batflies (Diptera, Streblidae). I. The genus Trichobius, with description of two new species and one new subspecies from Venezuela. Acta Parasitol 43:86–93

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Miller J, Tschapka M (2001) The bat flies of La Selva (Diptera: Nycteribiidae, Streblidae). Systematic Entomology Lab, USDA, Washington, DC. https://www.biologie.uni-ulm.de/bio3/Batfly/key.html#Families. Acessed 09 Jan 2020.

  28. 28.

    Guimarães LR, Andretta MAVD (1956) Sinopse dos Nycteribiidae (Diptera) (Diptera) do Novo Mundo. Arq Zool 9:1–175

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Guimarães LR (1966) Nycteribiid batflies from Panama (Diptera: Nycteribiidae). In: Wenzel RL, Tipton VJ (eds) Ectoparasites of panama. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, pp 393–404

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Guimarães LR (1977) Supplemantary note on Venezuelan bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae). Great Basin Nat 37:221–224

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Graciolli G (2004) Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea) no Sul do Brasil. Rev Bras Zool 21 (4): 971–985. https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0101-81752004000400035&script=sci_arttext Acessed 7 June 2019.

  32. 32.

    Furman D (1966) The spinturnicid mites of Panama (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). In: Wenzel RL, Tipton VJ (eds) Ectoparasites of Panama. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, pp 125–166

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Herrin CS, Tipton VJ (1975) Spinturnicid mites of Venezuela. Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull 20:1–72

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Morales-Malacara JB (2001) New morphological analysis of the bat wing mites of the genus Periglischrus (Acari: Spinturnicidae). In: Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress, Canberra, Australia, 5–10 July 1998 Canberra, Australia. pp 185–195.

  35. 35.

    Radovsky FJ (1967) The Macronyssidae and Laelapidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) parasitic on bats. Univ Calif Publ Entomol 46:153–159

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Radovsky FJ (2010) Revision of genera of the parasitic mite family Macronyssidae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssoidea) of the world. Indira Publishing House, Michigan

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Fain A (1959) Les acariens psoriques parasites des chauves-souris. X. Le genre Chirnyssoides g.n. chez les chauves-souris sud-américaines (Sarcoptiformes: Sarcoptidae). Bull Inst Roy Sci Nat Belg 35(31):1–19

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Fain A, Lukoschus FS (1975) Parasitic mites of Surinam. XXX. New observations on the genera Chirnyssoides and Notoedres from bats (Sarcoptiformes: Sarcoptidae). Acta Zool Pathol Antverp 61:91–118

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Klompen JSH (1992) Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). University of Michigan, Michigan

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Brennan JM (1969) New bat chiggers of the genus Perissopalla from Venezuela and Northeastern Brazil (Acarina: Trombiculidae). J Med Entomol 6(4):427–431. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/6.4.427

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Brennan JM, Reed JT (1975) A list of Venezuela chiggers, particularly of small mammalian hosts (Acarina: Trombiculidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 20(1):45–75

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Brennan JM, Goff ML (1977) Keys to the genera of chiggers of the western hemisphere (Acarina: Trombiculidae). J Parasit 63(3):554–566. https://doi.org/10.2307/3280021

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Barabási AL (2016) Network Science. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Dormann CF, Gruber B, Fruend J (2008) Introducing the bipartite Package: Analysing Ecological Networks. R news 8/2: 8–11. https://www.biom.uni-freiburg.de/Dateien/PDF/dormann2008rnews.pdf Accessed 09 Jan 2020.

  45. 45.

    Teixeira ALM, Ferreira RL (2010) Fauna de dípteros parasitas (Diptera: Streblidae) e taxa de infestação em morcegos presentes em cavidades artificiais em Minas Gerais. Chiropt Neotrop 16:748–754

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Barbier E, Graciolli G (2016) Community of bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) on bats in the Cerrado of Central-West Brazil: hosts, aggregation, prevalence, infestation intensity, and infracommunities. Stud Neotrop Fauna E 51(3):176–187. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650521.2016.1215042

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Prevedello JA, Graciolli G, Carvalho CJB (2005) A fauna de dípteros (Streblidae e Nycteribiidae) ectoparasitos de morcegos (Chiroptera) do estado do Paraná, Brasil: Composição, distribuição e áreas prioritárias para novos estudos. Biociências 13(2):193–209

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Reis NR, Peracchi AL, Batista CB, Lima IP, Pereira AD (2017) História Natural dos morcegos brasileiros. Chave de identificação de espécies. Technical Books, Rio de Janeiro

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Graciolli G, Carvalho CJB (2001) Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea, Nycterybiidae) de morcegos (Mammalia: Chiroptera) do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. II. Streblidae. Chave pictórica para os gêneros e espécies. Rev Bras Zool 18:907–960. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81752001000300026

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Graciolli G, Passos FC, Pedro WA, Lim BK (2006) Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae) de morcegos filostomídeos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) na Estação Ecológica dos Caetetus, São Paulo. Brasil Rev Bras Zool 23(1):298–299. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81752006000100025

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Coimbra CEA, Guimarães LR, Mello DA (1984) Ocorrência de Streblidae (Diptera: Pupipara) em morcegos capturados em regiões de cerrado do Brasil Central. Rev Bras Entomol 28:547–550

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Eriksson A, Graciolli G, Fischer E (2011) Bat flies on phyllostomid hosts in the cerrado region: component community, prevalence and intensity of parasitism. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 106(3):274–278. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762011000300004

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Vasconcelos PF, Falcão LAD, Graciolli G, Borges MAZ (2016) Parasite-host interactions of bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) in Brazilian tropical dry forests. Parasitol Res 115(1):367–377. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4757-8

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Graciolli G, Autino AG, Claps GL (2007) Catalogue of American Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea). Rev Bras Entomol 51:142–159. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262007000200004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Guimarães LR (1972) Venezuelan nycteribiid bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 17:1–11

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Graciolli G, Passos FC, Pedro WA, Lim BK (2002) Records of Streblidae and Nycteribiidae (Diptera) on Vespertilionid Bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from São Paulo State, Brazil. J New York Entomol Soc 110:402–404

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Dick CW, Patterson BD (2006) Bat flies: Obligate ectoparasites of bats. In: Morand S, Krasnov BR, Poulin R (eds) Micromammals and Macroparasites. Springer, Tokyo, pp 179–194

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Almeida JCD, Martins MA, Guedes PG, Peracchi AL, Serra-Freire NM (2016) New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 25(1):18–23. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612016005

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Machado-Allison CE, Antequera R (1971) Notes on Neotropical Mesostigmata VI: four new Venezuelan species of the genus Periglischrus (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Smithson Contrib Zool 93:1–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Lourenço EC, Gomes LAC, Pinheiro MC, Patrício PMP, Famadas KM (2014) Composition of bat assemblages (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in tropical riparian forests. Zool 31(4):361–369. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702014000400007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Azevedo AA, Linardi MP, Coutinho MTZ (2002) Acari ectoparasites of bats from Minas Gerais, Brazil. J Med Entomol 39:553–555. https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-39.3.553

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Silva CL, Valim MP, Graciolli G (2017) Ácaros ectoparasitos de morcegos no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Iheringia, Série Zool 107(suppl):1–6. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4766e2017111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Jacinavicius F, Bassini-Silva R, Mendoza-Roldan JA, Pepato AR, Ochoa R, Welbourn C, Barros-Battesti DM (2018) A checklist of chiggers from Brazil, including new records (Acari: Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae and Leeuwenhoekiidae). ZooKeys 743:1–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Silveira PSA, Bernardi LFO, Pepato AR (2015) New records of the genus Whartonia (Acari, Leeuwenhoekiidae) associated with the bat Carollia perspicillata from southeastern Brazil. Check List 11(6):1793. https://doi.org/10.15560/11.6.1793

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Lourenço EC, Pinheiro MC, Famadas KM, Faccini JLH (2013) New record, host and localities of bat mite of genus Chirnyssoides (Acari, Sarcoptiformes, Sarcoptidae). Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 22:260–264. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612013000200045

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Lourenço EC, Patrício PMP, Famadas KM (2016) Community components of spinturnicid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) parasitizing bats (Chiroptera) in the Tinguá Biological Reserve of Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Int J Acarol 42(2):63–69. https://doi.org/10.1080/01647954.2015.1117525

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Dantas-Torres F, Soares FM, Ribeiro CEBP, Daher MRM, Valença GC, Valim MP (2009) Mites (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae and Spelaeorhynchidae) associated with bats in northeast Brazil. J Med Entomol 46(3):712–715. https://doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Silva CDL, Graciolli G (2013) Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal. Brazil Acta Parasitol 58(2):174–179. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0134-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Patterson BD, Dick CW, Dittmar K (2007) Roosting habits of bats affect their parasitism by bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae). J Trop Ecol 23(02):177–189. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467406003816

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Presley SJ (2011) Interspecific aggregation of ectoparasites on bats: Importance of hosts as habitats supersedes interspecific interactions. Oikos 120(6):832–841. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.19199.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Schooler ML (2017) Co-occurrence patterns of bat flies on Neotropical Chiroptera. University Kentucky, Lexington

    Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Patrício PMP, Lourenço EC, Freitas AQ, Famadas KM (2016) Host morphophysiological conditions and environment abiotic factors correlate with bat flies (Streblidae) prevalence and intensity in Artibeus Leach, 1821 (Phyllostomidae). Ciênc Rural 46(4):648–653

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Webber QMR, Willis CKR (2015) Sociality, parasites, and pathogens in bats. In: Ortega J (ed) Sociality in bats. Springer International Publishing, Berlin, pp 105–139

    Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Dornelles GDP, Graciolli G (2017) Streblid bat flies on Phyllostomid bats from an Island off the coast of São Paulo Brazil. Pap Avulsos Zool 57(4):31–36. https://doi.org/10.11606/0031-1049.2017.57.04

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Esbérard C, Astúa D, Geise L, Costa L, Pereira L (2012) Do young Carollia perspicillata (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) present higher infestation rates of Streblidae (Diptera)? Braz J Biol 72(3):617–621. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842012000300027

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Dick CW, Dick SC (2006) Effects of prior infestation on host choice of bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae). J Med Entomol 43(2):433–436. https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585(2006)043[0433:EOPIOH]2.0.CO;2

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Ingram T, Shurin JB (2009) Trait-based assembly and phylogenetic structure in northeast Pacific rockfish assemblages. Ecology 90(9):2444–2453. https://doi.org/10.1890/08-1841.1

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Krasnov BR, Pilosof S, Stanko M, Morand S, Korallo-Vinarskaya NP, Vinarski MV, Poulin R (2014) Co-occurrence and phylogenetic distance in communities of mammalian ectoparasites: Limiting similarity versus environmental filtering. Oikos 123(1):63–70. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2013.00646.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Sisbio/ICMBio for allowing the bat caches (license number: 30412-2), Paracambi Secretary of the Environment and Sustainable Development for allowing this research in the park (authorization number: 027/2011), Entidade Ambientalista Onda Verde for logistic support, and many colleagues for helping in the field and the Artrópodes Parasitas Lab. Lourenço E.C. thanks the Rio de Janeiro Post-Doctoral Research Support Program (FAPERJ/CAPES—E-26/202.158/2015) for the stipends conceded. Gomes L.C.A. thanks CAPES for the Masters and PhD scholarships. Viana A.O. thanks FAPESP for the Masters scholarships.

Funding

Not applicable.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elizabete Captivo Lourenço.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare there are no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This study followed: Sikes, R.S., & Gannon, W. L. (2011). Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research. Journal of Mammalogy, 92(1), 235–253 and the Brazilian Council of Veterinary Medicine (Resolution Nº 1000, 11 May 2012, Resolution Nº 879, 15 February 2008). The entire procedure was authorized by the Ethics Committee for the Care and Use of experimental animals of Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (number 23083009482/2012).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lourenço, E.C., Gomes, L.A.C., Viana, A.d. et al. Co-occurrence of Ectoparasites (Insecta and Arachnida) on Bats (Chiroptera) in an Atlantic Forest Remnant, Southeastern Brazil. Acta Parasit. 65, 750–759 (2020). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00224-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Arthropod ectoparasites
  • Bat flies
  • Curió park
  • Host-ectoparasite associations
  • Mites