Epidemiology of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Vector Distribution in Didessa River Basin, Ethiopia

Abstract

Back ground

Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis much depends on the distribution and capacity of Glossina species responsible for transmission.

Method

A cross-sectional study based on parasitological and entomological studies was conducted from October to June 2018 to determine the epidemiology, distribution, and magnitude of the vector, the disease and Analyze associated risk factors.

Results

Based on implemented entomological study, Didessa river basin has a total apparent fly density of 5.33 Fly/Trap/Day (FTD); similarly, Glossina species accounted about 4.04 and 1.29 were other biting flies (Stomoxys and Tabanus). The composition of Glossina species identified in the study were 3335 (98.56%) Glossina tachinoides and 49 (1.44%) Glossina fuscipes. Comparatively higher and lower FTD found in altitude ranges from 1317 m above sea-level Bedele District (FTD = 5.19) and 1334 m above sea-level Boracha District (FTD = 1.88). Furthermore, from the total of n = 1517, local breeds of cattle examined for the infection of parasite and 82 cattle were found infected with an overall prevalence of 5.41%. The resulted overall prevalence was composed of Trypanosome congolense and Trypanosome vivax, 59 (3.89%) and 23 (1.52%), respectively. Among studied Districts; Goma, Limukosa, Limuseka, Bedele, Boracha, and Gechi prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was 6.56%, 6.48%, 7.56%, 3.56%, 6.71%, and 1.60%, respectively. Based on parasitological study, statistically significant prevalence was demonstrated between Districts of Limuseka 7.56% and Gechi 1.60% with highest and lowest, respectively. During the early dry season, the prevalence of Trypanosome vivax 0.53% was significantly lower than that of late rainy season 0.99%; however, the higher number of Trypanosome congolense 2.44% resulted during the late rainy season. The study also demonstrated that trypanosomosis strongly causes anemia with mean pcv of infected cattle 20.93 ± 3.93 and non-infected cattle 26.74 ± 3.81 (Mean pcv ± SD) with 95% CI, Pr (T > t) = 0.0000. Moreover, trypanosomosis-related anemia was highly associated with T. congolense with mean pcv result of 18.80 ± 4.66 [mean pcv ± SD, Pr (T > t) = 0.0000] when compared with T. vivax 27.53 ± 4.47 (Mean pcv ± SD, Pr (T > t) = 0.6222).

Conclusion

Finally, the research demonstrated the new local demographic occurrence of G.f. fuscipes in the Didessa river basin which was not reported by other studies so far, therefore, the current finding invites further studies and investigations.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Abbreviations

CI:

Confidence intervals

FTD:

Flies’ catchment per trap per day

G.f. fuscipes :

Glossina fuscipes fuscipes

G. tachnoides :

Glossina tachnoides

Pcv:

Packed cell volume

SD:

Standard deviation

T. congolense :

Trypanosome congolense

T. vivax :

Trypanosome vivax

References

  1. 1.

    Rogers DJ, Packer MJ, Hay SI (1996) Identifying the constraints on livestock productivity and land-use in Africa imposed by trypanosomosis. Final Technical Report for Natural Resources Institute (NRI) Extra Mural-á

  2. 2.

    Cecchi G, Mattioli RC, Slingenbergh J, De La Rocque S (2008) Land cover and tsetse fly distributions in subGÇÉSaharan Africa. Med Vet Entomol 22(4):364–373

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Mulugeta W, Wilkes J, Mulatu W, Majiwa PA, Masake R, Peregrine AS (1997) Long-term occurrence of Trypanosoma congolense resistant to diminazene, isometamidium and homidium in cattle at Ghibe, Ethiopia. Acta Trop 64(3–4):205–217

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    World Bank (2008): Tana & beles integrated water resources development project

  5. 5.

    Gouteux JP, Lancien J (1986) The pyramidal trap for collecting and controlling tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). Comparative trials and description of new collecting technics. Trop Med Parasitol 37(1):61–66

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Leak SG (1999) Tsetse biology and ecology: their role in the epidemiology and control of trypanosomosis ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD)

  7. 7.

    Murray M, Murray PK, McIntyre WIM (1977) An improved parasitological technique for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 71(4):325–326

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Nicholson MJ, Butterworth MH (1986) A guide to condition scoring of zebu cattle ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD)

  9. 9.

    Dagnachew S, Sangwan A, Abebe G (2004) Epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis in the Abay (Blue Nile) basin areas of Northwest Ethiopia. Rev Elev Méd vét Pays Trop. https://doi.org/10.19182/remvt.9927

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Tafese W, Melaku A, Fentahun T (2012) Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in two districts of East Wollega Zone, Ethiopia. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v79i1.385

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Duguma R, Tasew S, Olani A, Damena D, Alemu D, Mulatu T, Alemayehu Y, Yohannes M, Bekana M, Hoppenheit A (2015) Spatial distribution of Glossina sp. and Trypanosoma sp. in south-western Ethiopia. Parasit Vectors 8(1):430. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-1041-9

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Fayisa G, Mandefro A, Hailu B, Chala G, Alemayehu G (2015) Epidemiological status and vector identification of bovine trypanosomiosis in Didesa District of Oromia Regional State. Ethiopia Int J Nutr Food Sci 4(3):373–380

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Radostitis OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, Contable P (2007) Veterinary medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, pigs, sheep and goat. WB Saunders, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Uilenberge G (1998) A field guide for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of African animal trypanosomosis. Adopted from the original edition by Boyt W.P., FAO, Rome. pp 43–135

  15. 15.

    Langridge WP (1976) Tsetse and tryponosomosis survey of Ethiopia Ministry of overseas department UK, pp 1–40

  16. 16.

    Urquhart GM, Armour J, Duncan JL, Dunn AM, Jennings FW (1992) Veterinary parasitology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 209–253

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    De La Rocque S, Michel JF, Bouyer J, De Wispelaere G, Cuisance D (2005) Geographical information systems in parasitology: a review of potential applications using the example of animal trypanosomosis in West Africa. Parassitologia 47(1):97

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Leak SGA (1998) Tsetse biology and ecology: their role in the epidemiology and control of trypanosomosis. CABI International, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bitew M, Amedie Y, Abebe A, Tolosa T (2010) Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in selected areas of Jabi Tehenan district, West Gojam of Amhara regional state, Northwestern Ethiopia. Afr J Agric Res 6(1):140–144

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Megersa L, Feyisa B, Dereje A, Behablom M (2019) Bovine Trypanosomosis and Apparent Density of Tsetse Fly in Botor Tolay District, Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Biomed J Sci Tech Res. https://doi.org/10.26717/BJSTR.2019.13.002401 (BJSTR. MS.ID.002401)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Dagnachew S, Tsegaye B, Awukew A, Tilahun M, Ashenafi H, Roman T, Abebe G, Barry DJ, Terefe G, Goddeeris BM (2017) Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance in tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia. Parasite Epidemiol Control 2(2):40–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2017.02.002

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Losos GJ, Ikede BO (1972) Review of pathology of diseases in domestic and laboratory animals caused by Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax, T. brucei, T. rhodesiense and T. gambiense. Vet Pathol 9(1):1–79

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Codjia V, Mulatu W, Majiwa PAO, Leak SGA, Rowlands GJ, Authie E, d’Ieteren GDM, Peregrine AS (1993) Epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis in the Ghibe valley, south west of Ethiopia. Occurrence of population of Trypanosoma congolense resistant to diminazine, isometamedium and homedium. Acta Trop. (The Netherlands) 53(2):151–163

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Van den Bossche PRGJ, Rowlands GJ (2001) The relationship between the parasitological prevalence of trypanosomal infections in cattle and herd average packed cell volume. Acta Trop 78(2):163–170

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank all participants in the fieldwork and preparation of this article without specific recommendations and nominations.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

The following statements should be used “conceptualization, MT and TD; methodology, BM; software, KL; validation, BM, TD, and MT; formal analysis, BM; investigation, BM; resources, BM; data curtain, BM; writing—original draft preparation, BM; writing—review and editing, KL; visualization, KL; supervision, KL; project administration, BM.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Behablom Meharenet.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interests

The authors have not declared any conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The National Institute for the Control and Eradication of Tsetse flies and Trypanosomosis, Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia, authorized the fieldwork. The purpose of the study was clearly explained to veterinary officers and local administrators, and informed consents were obtained through verbal consent from the institute technique committee. Participants’ involvement in the study was on a voluntary basis, on the conducted entomological survey which was environmentally friendly.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Meharenet, B., Desta, T., Lelisa, K. et al. Epidemiology of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Vector Distribution in Didessa River Basin, Ethiopia. Acta Parasit. 65, 743–749 (2020). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00214-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Bovine trypanosomosis
  • Epidemiology
  • Vector distribution
  • Didessa river basin