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The Protective Role of Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Monophosphoryl Lipid A Against Vaccinated Murine Schistosomiasis

Abstract

Purpose

Schistosomiasis is a disease that afflicts over 220 million people worldwide. To date, there is no vaccine against schistosomiasis and chemotherapy relies basically on a single drug, praziquantel. The current study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic effects of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) as an adjuvant in soluble egg antigen (SEA)-vaccinated and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice.

Methods

Mice were divided into two groups of uninfected and Schistosoma mansoni infected. The two groups were treated differently with MPLA, SEA and praziquantel. Study parameters included parasitological, immunological and biochemical parameters.

Results

Parasitological parameters revealed that intraperitoneal injection of MPLA into SEA-vaccinated and S. mansoni-infected mice was effective in reducing the worm and egg burden, granuloma count and diameter as well as the total area of infection in their livers versus SEA-untreated but infected ones. In addition, MPLA showed ameliorative action on the elevated liver oxidative stress marker, including malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the level of the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) which may have a role in the liver damage and fibrosis due to S. mansoni infection.

Conclusion

Treatment with MPLA has multi-functions in attenuating the deleterious impacts of S. mansoni infection in mice livers. Its effects are mediated through a reduction of ova count, worm burden, granuloma diameter and amelioration of antioxidant defense systems, and liver function biomarkers.

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Acknowledgements

The authors extend their appreciation to the Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia for its logistic support.

Funding

This research was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University through the research group program (R.G.P.1)—127/40.

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Correspondence to Essam H. Ibrahim.

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All authors state that they have not any financial, non-financial and commercial conflict of interest regarding this work.

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Aly, I., Ibrahim, E.H., Hamad, R.S. et al. The Protective Role of Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Monophosphoryl Lipid A Against Vaccinated Murine Schistosomiasis. Acta Parasit. 65, 652–660 (2020). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00204-3

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Keywords

  • Schistosomiasis
  • Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA)
  • Chemotherapy
  • Oxidative stress
  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • SEA