Seasonal Distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi, Vector of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis



The activity of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, is known to be seasonal, but the information describing these patterns is sparse in time and space. The purpose of his paper is to conduct a meta-analysis to depict the seasonality of P. papatasi at the global scale.


The current paper uses data from a collection of 1200 scientific papers, where 300 are about the vector and 36 include monthly data (of 61 sites) of the P. papatasi from 15 countries published from 1994 to 2017.


The activity peaked mainly in dry periods in all explored sites. A map of seasonal distribution depicted a peak activity in August, followed by September. Geographically (geographic preference), August and September at the latitude 33° showed the highest abundance at a global scale. Concerning the latitude P. papatasi distribution, the high number is localized between 27° and 35°. However, the high number of this species according to the longitude is localized between − 4° and 58°, which shows a high interval of activity. Locally, for the habitat preference, the findings show a preference of this vector to indoor than to outdoor.


All these results can be helpful in identifying the period and sites of a future potential risk of leishmaniasis. This is the first attempt at the update of the vector activity both at global and local scale.

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source: this meta-analysis Climatic data source: ESRI grids, resolution 10 min after WorldClim 1.4 (current conditions) by; [25])

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Karmaoui, A. Seasonal Distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi, Vector of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Acta Parasit. 65, 585–598 (2020).

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  • Sand fly
  • Phlebotomus papatasi
  • Seasonal transmission
  • Habitat preference
  • Potential risk