Epidemiology, Associated Factors and Treatment Methods of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Based on Previous Data from 2013 to 2018 in Ilam, Western Iran

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical presentation and types of treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the province of Ilam (Western Iran) in 5 years (from May 2013 to January 2018). This cross-sectional study involved patients diagnosed with CL who were referred to Mehran City Health center.

Methods

All patients were diagnosed by clinical and parasitological (Giemsa staining of lesion to observe the parasite) methods. Moreover, a structured questionnaire on demographic data including age, sex, occupation, number and site of the lesions, treatment regimen was administered to each case.

Results

In total, 2001 positive CL cases were observed in this study. The highest prevalence of CL was reported in the autumn season and mainly among male subjects residing in urban communities. The prevalence of CL varied with the age group: higher in the age group of 1–10 years than other groups. Besides, hands and faces were the most affected regions of the body. Most of the cases (47.35%) were managed by topical treatment (glucantime) and cryotherapy followed by systemic treatment (pentavalent antimony) 26.85%.

Conclusions

The prevalence of disease varied with age, increasing the prevalence rate in children due to their habitats, the highest prevalence in autumn due to climatic conditions. These findings help to better discuss the prevention and treatment of infections.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6 and 7
Fig. 8 and 9

References

  1. 1.

    Heidari-Kharaji M, Taheri T, Doroud D, Habibzadeh S, Badirzadeh A, Rafati S (2016) Enhanced paromomycin efficacy by solid lipid nanoparticle formulation against Leishmania in mice model. Parasite Immunol 38:599–608

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    World Health Organization (2017) Leishmaniasis. World Health Organization, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Najafzadeh N, Sedaghat MM, Sultan SS, Spotin A, Zamani A, Taslimian R et al (2014) The existence of only one haplotype of Leishmania major in the main and potential reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis using different molecular markers in a focal area in Iran. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 47(5):599–606

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Eskandarian A, Jahani S, Hejazi H, Yousefi H, Raissi V (2017) Investigation of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis patients of the Isfahan province. Int J Infect 4(2):40260 https://doi.org/10.5812/iji.40260

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Rassi Y, Gassemi MM, Javadian E, Rafizadeh S, Motazedian H, Vatadoost H (2007) Vectors and reservoirs of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Marvdasht district. Southern Islamic Republic of Iran. East Med Health J 13(3):686–693

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Rassi Y, Sofizadeh A, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Rafizadeh S, Mohebail M et al (2008) Molecular detection of leishmania major in the vectors and reservoir hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kalaleh District, Golestan Province, Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis 2(2):21–27

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Rassi Y, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Rafizadeh S, Mohebali M, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR et al (2011) Phlebotomus papatasi and Meriones libycus as the vector and reservoir host of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qomrood District, Qom Province, central Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med 4(2):97–100

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Rassi Y, Abai MR, Javadian E, Rafizadeh S, Imamian H, Mohebali M et al (2011) Molecular detection of Leishmania infection due to Leishmania major and L. turanica in the vectors and reservoir host in Iran. Vector borne Zoonotic Dis 11(2):145–150

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Alvar J, Vélez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J et al (2012) Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its prevalence. PLoS ONE 7(5):e35671

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Kermanjani A, Akhlaghi L, Oormazdi H, Hadighi R (2017) Isolation and identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis species by PCR– RFLP in Ilam province, the west of Iran. J Parasit Dis 41(1):175–179

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Albakhit S, Khademvatan S, Doudi M, Foroutan-Rad M (2016) Antileishmanial activity of date (Phoenix dactylifera L) fruit and pit extracts in vitro. J Evid Based Complement Altern Med 21(4):98–102

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Foroutan-Rad M, Khademvatan S, Saki J, Hashemitabar M (2016) Holothuria leucospilota extract induces apoptosis in Leishmania major promastigotes. Iran J Parasitol 11(3):339–349

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Barberis F, Vélez ID (2014) Opciones Terapéuticas para el manejo de la Leishmaniais cutánea Americana. Rev Panam Infect 16:113–122

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Layegh P, Pezeshkpoor F, Soruri AH, Naviafar P, Moghiman T (2009) Efficacy of cryotherapy versus intralesional meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) for treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80(2):172–175

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Norouzinezhad F, Ghaffari F, Norouzinejad A, Kaveh F, Gouya MM (2016) Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran: results from an epidemiological study in urban and rural provinces. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 6:614–619

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Khademvatan S et al (2017) Spatial distribution and epidemiological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwest of Iran. Alex J Med 53(1):93–98

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Rassi Y, Saghafipour A, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Mohebali M, Mostafavi R (2013) Determination of Leishmania parasite species of cutaneous leishmaniasis using PCR method in central county, Qom Province. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 15:13–16

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Fakhar M, Mikaeili F, Hatam GR, Habibi P, Karamian M, Motazedian M et al (2010) A molecular epidemiology survey of cutaneous leishmaniasis in patient referring to parasitology lab at shiraz school of medicine and the importance of PCR assay. J Jahrom Univ Med Sci 8(1–6):2–6 (Persian)

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Mesgarian F, Rahbarian N, Mahmoudi Rad M, Hajaran H, Shahbaz F, Mesgarian Z et al (2010) Identification of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Gonbad-e-Qabus city using a PCR method during 2006–2007. Tehran Univ Med J 68(4):250–256 (Persian)

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Doroodgar A, Mahbobi S, Nemetian M, Sayyah M, Doroodgar M (2009) An epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kashan (2007–2008). Koomesh 10(3):177–184 (Persian)

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Yaghoobi-Ershadi M, Marvi-Moghadam N, Jafari R, Akhavan A, Solimani H, Zahrai-Ramazani A et al (2015) Some epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a new focus, central Iran. Dermatol Res Pract 2015:286408

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Hamzavi Y, Khademi N (2015) Trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kermanshah Province, west of Iran from 1990 to 2012. Iran J Parasitol 10:78–86

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Nilforoushzadeh MA, Shirani Bidabadi L, Hosseini SM, Fadaei Nobari R, Jaffary F (2014) Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Isfahan Province, Iran, during 2001–2011. J Skin Stem Cell 1(2):e23303

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Rafati N et al (2004) Epidemiological survey of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Damghan (1999–2005). Sci J Semnan Univ Med Sci 2(1):247–253

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Abbasi AE, Ghanbary MR, Kazem NK (2004) The epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Gorgan (1998–2001). Ann Med Health Sci Res 2(1):275–278

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Maleki M, Yousefi M, Bazzaz SMM et al (2017) An overview of skin lesions adapted to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Persian Medicine. Electron Phys. 9(11):5854–5862 (Published 2017 Nov 25)

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Abdellatif M, El-Mabrouk K, Ewis A (2013) An Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi, Libya. Korean J Parasitol 51:75–84. https://doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2013.51.1.75

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Remadi L, Haouas N, Chaara D, Slama D, Chargui N, Dabghi R, Babba H (2016) Clinical presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania major. Dermatology 232(6):752–759

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Bousslimi N, Aoun K, Ben-Abda I, Ben-Alaya-Bouafif N, Raouane M, Bouratbine A (2010) Epidemiologic and clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Tunisia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83(5):1034–1039

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Nazari N, Faraji R, Vejdani M, Mekaeili A, Hamzavi Y (2012) The prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniases in patients referred to Kermanshah hygienic centers. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 14(8):77–79

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Frézard F, Demicheli C, Ribeiro RR (2009) Pentavalent antimonials: new perspectives for old drugs. Molecules 14:2317–2336

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Masoud D, Delavari M, Moein D, Abbasi A, Taherian AA, Abbas D (2016) Tamoxifen induces apoptosis of Leishmania major promastigotes in vitro. Korean J Parasitol 54:9–14

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Thanks to the health center staff and all those who participated in the project in the province of Ilam.

Funding

No financial resources.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Study concept and design: NR, AI, VR, MG acquisition of data: AR, MN, analysis and interpretation or manuscript writing and revision: AI, VR, AT.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Vahid Raissi or Asmaa Ibrahim.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of Interest Statement

The authors and coauthors declare that they have no conflict of interest that affects this study.

Ethical Approval

An approval was taken from the Ethical Committee, of Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Consent was taken from all the participants or their guardians before being enrolled in the study. All were informed of the purpose of the collection of samples, sharing in the study was selective.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rezaee, N., Raissi, V., Rajaeipour, A. et al. Epidemiology, Associated Factors and Treatment Methods of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Based on Previous Data from 2013 to 2018 in Ilam, Western Iran. Acta Parasit. 65, 760–767 (2020). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00198-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cutaneous leishmaniasis
  • Epidemiology
  • Treatment
  • Iran