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Zinc Supplementation: Immune Balance of Pregnancy During the Chronic Phase of the Chagas Disease

Abstract

Background

Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and is endemic of the Americas. The control of the disease is restricted to toxic and potentially teratogenic drugs, which limit the use during pregnancy. The use of food supplementation offers a safe and low-cost form to alleviate Chagas disease symptoms, mostly in areas with alimentary risk. For example, zinc demonstrates positive effects in immune response, including in Chagas disease during pregnancy.

Purpose

This study describes the innate response in pregnant rats chronically infected with T. cruzi and supplemented with zinc.

Methods

Pregnant female Wistar rats, infected with T. cruzi, were treated with 20 mg/kg/day zinc sulfate and euthanized on the 18th day. Samples (plasma, splenocytes, and peritoneal exudate) were collected and several immune parameters (nitric oxide, RT1B, CD80/CD86, MCP-1, CD11b/c, NK/NKT, IL-2, IL-10, INF-cc, and apoptosis) evaluated.

Results

Under Zinc supplementation and/or T. cruzi infection, the gestation developed normally. Several innate immune parameters such as RT1B, CD80/CD86, MCP-1 expressing lymphocytes, IL-2, and IL-17 were positively altered, whereas nitric oxide, CD11b/c, NK/NKT, apoptosis, INF-γ, and corticosterone demonstrated a pro-pregnancy pattern.

Conclusion

Our results indicated that zinc has diverse effects on immune response during pregnancy. An anti-T. cruzi immunity, as well as a pro-gestation response, were observed after zinc supplementation. The complete comprehension of zinc supplementation in pregnancy will base an adequate strategy to alleviate Chagas disease symptoms and propagation, especially for populations from endemic areas.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank FAPESP for the fellowship to C.M.B. da Costa (Grant number: 2013/04205-6). We also thank Fabiana Rosetto Morais and Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira Souza for the flow cytometry and HPLC assistance, respectively.

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CMBDC, JCDPJ, and AACA designed the experiments, wrote, and revised the manuscript. CMBDC, MVF, FS, and IFLG carried out the experimental work. LMP and FBJ analyzed the data, wrote, and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Cássia Mariana Bronzon da Costa or Ana Amélia Carraro Abrahão.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Bronzon da Costa, C.M., del Vecchio Filipin, M., Santello, F.H. et al. Zinc Supplementation: Immune Balance of Pregnancy During the Chronic Phase of the Chagas Disease. Acta Parasit. 65, 599–609 (2020). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00188-0

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Keywords

  • Chagas disease
  • Pregnancy
  • Zinc
  • Chronic phase