Parasite Communities of Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis (Trewavas, 1983) in Relation to Selected Water Quality Parameters in the Springs of Lorwai Swamp and Lake Baringo, Kenya



Parasite infections may lead to mortalities in fish; therefore, destabilizing the biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Swamps such as the Lorwai Swamp are important water sources, and information on the parasite species infecting Oreochromis nilotocus baringoensis in the hot springs of Lorwai Swamp which have a distinct genetic makeup from their counterparts in Lake Baringo is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a knowledge base on the parasite species infecting O. niloticus baringoensis in these springs, facilitate their comparison with those in Lake Baringo and determine their relationship with selected water quality parameters.


347 fish were collected and standard parasitological procedures were used to examine the presence of parasites. Physico-chemical parameters were measured in situ and water samples were collected for chlorophyll-a determination and nutrient analyses in the laboratory using standard methods. Relationship between parasitic infections and selected water quality parameters was determined by PCA using SPSS version 22.


Two parasite species were common in all sites: Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Clinostomum sp. Some parasites correlated positively with some parameters; Amirthalingamia macracantha and Contracaecum sp. with nitrogen compounds. Others like Clinostomum sp. and Tylodelphys sp. correlated negatively with dissolved oxygen.


Results from this study showed that there were both positive and negative relationships between some water quality parameters and the prevalence of recovered parasites. O. niloticus baringoensis from Lake Baringo also recorded high parasite prevalence and this calls for sensitization of the public on the risks that may arise from the consumption of undercooked infected fish.

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(Source: Modified from the Topographical map of Kenya scale 1:50,000) (Survey of Kenya)

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Special thanks go to Mr. Arthur Adamba Kafuna and the late Ms. Naomi Nyambura Kamau for funding this research. We acknowledge the Department of Biological Sciences of Egerton University for allowing us use their laboratory and equipment, the committee of the Lorwai Swamp Conservancy for allowing us to carry out this study in the hot springs of Lorwai Swamp and the technical assistance of Mr. Felix Muvea and Mr. Titus Rono in the field and Mr. Lewis Mungai in the laboratory. We also acknowledge the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI) for granting us the permission to carry out this study (Permit No: NACOSTI/P/19/73132/27709).


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or non-for-profit sectors, but was funded personally by Mr. Arthur Adamba Kafuna and the late Ms. Naomi Nyambura Kamau.

This research complied with the Egerton University Ethics Review Committee ethical standards and guidelines.

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SWKA carried out the field and laboratory work and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. EOO and GOO made critical suggestions towards the improvement of the manuscript and critically reviewed it. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Stephanie Wangare Kamau Adamba.

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Adamba, S.W.K., Otachi, E.O. & Ong’ondo, G.O. Parasite Communities of Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis (Trewavas, 1983) in Relation to Selected Water Quality Parameters in the Springs of Lorwai Swamp and Lake Baringo, Kenya. Acta Parasit. 65, 441–451 (2020).

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  • Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis
  • Parasite communities
  • Water quality
  • Hot springs
  • Lorwai Swamp
  • Lake Baringo