Redescription of Rhadinorhynchus trachuri Harada, 1935 (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from Marine Fish in Vietnam and California with a Discussion of its Zoogeography

Abstract

Background

Rhadinorhynchus trachuri Harada, 1935 is probably one of the most widely distributed acanthocephalans in the world, but the least known taxonomically. This report fills the large gap of knowledge about its taxonomy, host relationships, and worldwide distribution in marine fishes of both sides of the Pacific Ocean and the connecting Indian Ocean.

Purpose

To revisit the taxonomy of this species, provide a more complete morphological description and expand our knowledge about its morphological identity and variations and elaborate on its worldwide zoogeography; accounting for its worldwide distribution based on new collections, museum specimens, and on published reports.

Methods

Specimens from Vietnam were processed, identified, and documented using standard techniques. Specimens of R. trachuri were studied from three species of fish in three families, Auxis thazard (Lacépède) (Scombridae), Megalaspis cordyla (Linn.) (Carangidae), and Tylosurus sp. (Belonidae) in Nha Trang and Binh Thuan in the south Pacific coast of Vietnam and additional museum specimens mostly from salmonids from the Pacific coast of California were also studied. Extensive research was conducted on published records of R. trachuri and its marine fish hosts worldwide.

Results

Specimens of R. trachuri are characterized by cylindrical trunk with anterior rings of spines and posterior ventral and lateral spines, a proboscis usually with 12 hook rows each with 19–24 hooks, variable position of testes, and a long uterus, uterine bell attached to the dorsal trunk wall, rounded vagina, and unusually dorsal gonopore. The hosts and geographical distribution of R. trachuri suggest a northern linkage of infections between the Asian and American Pacific populations across the Bering Sea involving salmonid fishes and a southern linkage through the Indian Ocean involving Carangid fishes. Other hosts involved in the cycling and distribution of infections are also discussed with some definitive hosts also serving as paratenic hosts.

Conclusions

This is the first complete description about R. trachuri and the first comprehensive accounting of its worldwide distribution in 19 species of marine fish in seven families. Considerable intraspecific variability related to geographical restrictions, intermediate and definitive host specificity and distribution, and host feeding behavior was documented.

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Acknowledgements

The Vietnamese specimens were gratefully provided by Dr. Ngyuen Van Ha (Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources) under the Vietnam National Program No. 47 Grant code VAST.DA47.12/16-19 of the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi. The California specimens were provided by Dr. Anna Phillips and Amanda Robinson (Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, Maryland), and Dr. Gabor R. Racz (Harold W. Manter Laboratory, University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln) under their respective funded loan programs. I am grateful for these colleagues’ comparable assistance toward making research material available for this study and gratefully acknowledge their contributions in this section equally. This project was supported by an Institutional Grant from the Parasitology Center, Inc. (PCI), Scottsdale, Arizona.

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Amin, O.M. Redescription of Rhadinorhynchus trachuri Harada, 1935 (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from Marine Fish in Vietnam and California with a Discussion of its Zoogeography. Acta Parasit. 65, 77–89 (2020). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-019-00130-z

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Keywords

  • Acanthocephala
  • Rhadinorhynchus trachuri
  • Vietnam
  • Redescription
  • Zoogeography