Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 64, Issue 4, pp 911–915 | Cite as

First Molecular Evidences of Acanthamoeba T3, T4 and T5 Genotypes in Hemodialysis Units in Iran

  • Reza Saberi
  • Mahdi FakharEmail author
  • Omid Sedighi
  • Fatemeh Espahbodi
  • Alireza Latifi
  • Atieh Makhlough
  • Ali Sharifpour
  • Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi
  • Shabnam Asfaram
Original Paper



Acanthamoeba is a genus of the free-living amoeba that is widespread in the environment and is a causative agent of opportunistic infections in human. This study aimed to investigate the existence and genotyping of Acanthamoeba species in hemodialysis units in Iran.


In the present study, forty water samples of hydraulic systems and twenty dust samples were collected from two hemodialysis units in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. The samples were cultivated on non-nutrient agar and genotyping was performed by targeting the 18S rRNA gene.


Both morphology and molecular analyses showed that 17.5% (7/40) of water samples and 50% (10/20) of dust samples were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. The sequencing analysis of these isolates was found to be T3, T4 and T5 genotypes.


To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation to identify of Acanthamoeba species in hydraulic system of hemodialysis units in Iran. High contamination of hemodialysis units with virulent T4 genotype of Acanthamoeba may poses a risk for biofilm formation. Our results support urgent need to improve filtration methods in dialysis units and monitoring hemodialysis patients for Acanthamoeba infections.


Acanthamoeba Genotypes Hemodialysis units Biofilm Iran 



This work was supported by the Clinical Research Development Unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (Grant No. 3603). We are also grateful of Mrs. Sadeghian as manager of hemodialysis unit and Mrs. Gorgi for their kind assistance.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors pronounce that there are no conflicts of interest.

Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate

The current research was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran (IR.MAZUMS.REC.1398.304). All participants wrote the informed consents for participating in this study.


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Copyright information

© Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reza Saberi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mahdi Fakhar
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  • Omid Sedighi
    • 3
  • Fatemeh Espahbodi
    • 3
  • Alireza Latifi
    • 4
  • Atieh Makhlough
    • 3
  • Ali Sharifpour
    • 1
    • 5
  • Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi
    • 1
  • Shabnam Asfaram
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Toxoplasmosis Research CenterMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  2. 2.Student Research CommitteeMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  3. 3.Department of Nephrology, Toxoplasmosis Research Center, School of Medicine, Imam Khomeini HospitalMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  4. 4.Department of Medical Parasitology, School of Public Health ResearchTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Iranian National Registry Center for Lophomoniasis (INRCL), Imam Khomeini HospitalMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran

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