Optimizing and Evaluating the Antihelminthic Activity of the Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Against the Ascaridid Nematode, Parascaris equorum In Vitro
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In the present study, the effect of different biocompatible concentrations from ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the physiological state and surface topography of the nematode P. equorum was determined in vitro.
Different concentrations of ZnO NPs (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/l) synthesized using the egg white were prepared followed by the incubation of parasitic worms with these concentrations in vitro. The physiological state of treated worms such as oxidative stress markers, enzymatic activities and biochemical parameters in addition to the surface topography was determined and compared with control untreated worms.
In comparison to control worms, it was observed that at high concentrations of ZnO NPs, most of the treated worms showed an increase in the levels of ALT, AST and ALP (worm muscle damage, and gonad injury); enhancement of the total protein content (worm cellular dysfunction); significant increase in MDA level (free radical-mediated worm cell membrane damage); depletion in GST and GSH activities (reduced ability to clear toxic compounds like lipid peroxides); CAT depletion (superoxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxide toxicity) and NO increase (detoxification activity and stressful conditions on worms). SEM showed that there was a modified morphological appearance in the surface of treated worms; lips were wrinkled with irregularly arranged denticles, weathering of cuticle, bursts of cuticle layers, disruption of surface annulations and erosion of surface papillae of male around the cloacal opening.
ZnO NPs at environmentally relevant concentrations achieved a significant antihelminthic activity against P. equorum which represents a successful model used in parasite control experiments.
KeywordsAntihelminthic effect ZnO NPs Biocompatibility Nematoda Parascaris equorum Physiological state
The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of the Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through Research group Project under Grant number (R.G.P.1–56–39).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interests
No conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article is declared.
Animal Rights Statement
The experiments on animals were conducted in accordance with the local Ethical Committee laws and regulations with regard to care and use of laboratory animals.
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