Massive Taenia hydatigena Cysticercosis in a Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) from Italy
- 31 Downloads
Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, due to Cysticercus tenuicollis, is a parasitic disease infecting domestic and wild animals worldwide causing economic and productive losses. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the role of the wild ungulates in the epidemiology of this disease. In the last years, the increasing population of wild boars in Europe has raised the attention of researchers on their role in the spreading of several infections, including those caused by cestodes. Herein, we report the description of a massive infection due to T. hydatigena cysticercosis in a wild boar from southern Italy.
An adult female boar was examined during the hunting season 2018 within the regional project “Piano Emergenza Cinghiali in Campania”. A complete necropsy was performed on the boar carcass and all viscera were examined to determine number and location of the cysts. Morphological and molecular analyses of the cysts were performed to confirm the C. tenuicollis identity.
The boar examined has revealed an impressive massive infection with 265 cysts. Measurements of the large and small larval hooks showed a mean of length as 200.3 µm and 136.8 µm, respectively. Molecular analysis of Cox1 and ND1 mitochondrial genes confirmed the C. tenuicollis identity.
Our findings suggest that wild boar could be involved in the epidemiology of T. hydatigena, due to the significant amount of boar raw offal available to definitive hosts (i.e., hunting dogs, foxes and wolves), during the hunting seasons.
KeywordsTaenia hydatigena Cysticercus tenuicollis Cysticercosis Wild boar Italy
The authors wish to thank Prof. David Modrý for the critical comments and for the revision of the manuscript.
The study was supported by the grant from Regione Campania UOD Prevenzione e Sanità Pubblica Veterinaria, Piano Emergenza Cinghiali (PECC 2016-2019) and by the grant from the Ministry of Health of the Italian Republic (IZS ME 04/18 RC).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Boufana B, Scala A, Lahmar S, Pointing S, Craig PS, Dessì G, Zidda A, Pipia AP, Varcasia A (2015) A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy. Vet Parasitol 214(1–2):67–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.08.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 4.Gomez-Puerta LA, Pacheco J, Gonzales-Viera O, Lopez-Urbina MT, Gonzalez AE, Peru Cysticercosis Working Group in (2015) The taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and the red brocket deer (Mazama americana) as intermediate hosts of Taenia hydatigena in Perù, morphological and molecular evidence. Vet Parasitol 212:465–468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.08.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 5.Jia WZ, Yan HB, Guo AJ, Zhu XQ, Wang YC, Shi WG, Chen HT, Zhan F, Zhang SH, Fu BQ, Littlewood DTJ, Cai XP (2010) Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance. BMC Genom 11(1):447. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-11-447 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Laurimäe T, Kinkar L, Varcasia A, Dessì G, Sgroi G, D’Alessio N, Veneziano V, Saarma U (2019) First detection of zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotype G7 in continental Italy. Parasitol Res 118:2193–2201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06346-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Massei G, Toso S (1993) Biologia e gestione del cinghiale. Istituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica, Documenti tecnici 5, BolognaGoogle Scholar
- 8.Massei G, Kindberg J, Licoppe A, Gačić D, Šprem N, Kamler J, Baubet E, Hohmann U, Monaco A, Ozoliņš J, Cellina S, Podgόrski T, Fonseca C, Markov N, Pokorny B, Rosell C, Náhlikq A (2015) Wild boar populations up, numbers of hunters down? A review of trends and implications for Europe. Pest Manag Sci 71:492–500. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3965 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.McGill I, Abraham M, Boscolo S, Dalzell F, Eastwood B, Edwards R, Elliott P, Hill S, Hinde J, Kneba E, Knight A, Lewis J, MacMillan A, Menache A, Mullineaux L, Newby P, O’Connor M, Pell S, Puddifoot J, Sainsbury AW, Saunders R, St Pierre N, Tipping K, Twigg J, Jones M (2017) Hunting with hounds. Vet Rec 180:547–548. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.j2630 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Murrell K, Dorny P, Organization WHO (2005) Detection and Diagnosis. In: Murrel KD (ed) WHO/FAO/OIE guidelines for the surveillance, prevention and control of taeniosis/cysticercosis. OIE, Paris, pp 44–55Google Scholar
- 16.Piantedosi D, Neola B, D’Alessio N, Di Prisco F, Santoro M, Pacifico L, Sgroi G, Auletta L, Buch J, Chandrashekar R, Breitschwerdt EB, Veneziano V (2017) Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and D. immitis in hunting dogs from southern Italy. Parasitol Res 116:2651–2660. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-017-5574-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Rostami S, Salavati R, Beech RN, Babaei Z, Sharbatkhori M, Baneshi MR, Hajialilo E, Shad H, Harandi MF (2013) Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran. J Helminthol 89:150–157. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X13000667 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Scala A, Pipia AP, Dore F, Sanna G, Tamponi C, Marrosu R, Bandino E, Carmona C, Boufana B, Varcasia A (2015) Epidemiological updates and economic losses due to Taenia hydatigena in sheep from Sardinia, Italy. Parasitol Res 114:3137–3143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4532-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Sgroi G, Varcasia A, Dessi G, D’Alessio N, Tamponi C, Saarma U, Laurimäe T, Kinkar L, Santoro M, Caputo V, Sarnelli P, Fusco G, Varuzza P, Fioretti A, Scala A, Veneziano V (2019) Cystic echinococcosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from southern Italy: epidemiological survey and molecular characterization. Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2019.04.013 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar