Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 64, Issue 4, pp 927–931 | Cite as

Anthelminthic potential of the Ficus insipida latex on monogeneans of Colossoma macropomum (Serrasalmidae), a medicinal plant from the Amazon

  • Anai Paola Prissila Flores Gonzales
  • Gracienhe Gomes Santos
  • Marcos Tavares-DiasEmail author
Short Communication



Herbal therapy is a potentially beneficial alternative for fish aquaculture, since it may be cheaper and more effective than chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro efficacy of Ficus insipida latex on monogeneans of Colossoma macropomum gills.

Materials and methods

To evaluate the anthelmintic activity, four concentrations of F. insipida latex (250, 500, 750 and 1000 µL/L) and exposure time to cause immobilization on monogeneans were used. In addition, two control groups, being one with water from the breeding tank and the other with breeding water from the tank + 70% ethyl alcohol were used.


At the concentration of 250 µL/L of F. insipida latex, the immobilization of the monogeneans occurred after 4 h of exposure, while at the concentration of 500 µL/L, it occurred after 2 h. At the concentrations of 750 and 1000 µL/L of F. insipida latex, the immobilization of the monogeneans occurred after 1 h and 30 min, respectively. After exposure to 250 µL/L of F. insipida latex, 100% of immobilization of monogeneans was observed within 4 h, to 500 and 750 µL/L, 100% immobilization occurred within 4 h and to 1000 µL/L, 100% mortality occurred after 2 h.


Thus, we recommended the use of 1000 μL/L of F. insipida latex for therapeutic baths in of C. macropomum against monogeneans, after previous test of toxicity.


Fish farming Freshwater fish Parasites Treatment 



The authors also thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Brazil) for the productivity research grant awarded to M. Tavares-Dias (# 303013/2015-0), and to Organização de os Estados Americanos (OEA), Grupo Coimbra de Universidades Brasileiras (GCUB), Programa de Alianças para Educação e Capacitação de Bolsas no Brasil (PAEC) by the bursary of Master for the first author.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical disclosures

This study was developed in accordance with the principles adopted by the Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation (COBEA), and authorization from Ethics Committee in the Use of Animal of the Embrapa Amapá (#013/2018) was carried out.


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Copyright information

© Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Tropical (PPGBio)Universidade Federal do Amapá (UNIFAP)MacapáBrazil
  2. 2.Embrapa AmapáMacapáBrazil

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