Vaccaria n-Butanol Extract Lower the Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines and the Infection Risk of T. spiralis In Vivo
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Trichinellosis is a severe zoonosis involving the activation of inflammatory cells, accompanied by the prominent expressions of proinflammatory cytokines in the host. Semen vaccariae, the seeds of Vaccaria segetalis (Neck.) Garcke. ex Asch. (Caryophyllaceae), is a famous traditional herb that is rich in vaccaria n-butanol extract (VNE). Vaccarin is one major active component of VNE, and it is reported in the treatment of stranguria disease. Hypaphorine is another main active component of VNE and has good anti-inflammatory effect, whereas the potential bioactivity of VNE in trichinellosis treatment is still unknown.
Materials and methods
This study was designed to evaluate the potential anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory activity of VNE toward T. spiralis infection. ICR mice were used to assess the effect of VNE on repression larvae and adult worms in vivo. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to evaluate the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2.
Our results showed that VNE could effectively depress the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2. The adult worms were decreased by 79.53%, while the muscle larvae were diminished by 77.70% as compared to the control.
These results demonstrated that VNE may be a promising therapeutic agent against the inflammation and diseases caused by T. spiralis infection.
KeywordsZoonosis Trichinellosis Vaccariae semen Hypaphorine Vaccarin Proinflammatory cytokines
The authors acknowledge the funding from Wuxi Science and Technology Development Fund 2018 (Grant no. WX0302B010507180101 PB) and Jiangnan University Youth Fund 2018 (Grant no. K2050205). This work was also supported by the National First-Class Discipline Program of Food Science and Technology (JUFSTR20180101).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All experiments on human subjects published in this article were in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975.
Consent for publication
All animal procedures and protocols of this project were conformed to Good Publishing Practice in Acta Parasitologica. The study was approved by the Animal Care Committee of Jiangnan University.
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