Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 64, Issue 4, pp 720–737 | Cite as

Study of Steinernema hermaphroditum (Nematoda, Rhabditida), from the West Uttar Pradesh, India

  • Aashaq Hussain BhatEmail author
  • Ashok Kumar Chaubey
  • Ebrahim Shokoohi
  • Phatu William Mashela
Original Paper



The entomopathogenic nematodes have been reported from all continents (except Antarctica) and almost all regions of the world. Surveys of EPNs in India has resulted in the recovery of several isolates of Steinernema. Among one of them, isolate CS34 was identified as S. hermaphroditum Stock, Griffin & Chaerani, 2004. We investigated the identification and the pathogenicity of S. hermaphroditum in District Meerut of Western Uttar Pradesh, India.

Materials and methods

The Steinernema was examined for its pathogenicity and accurate identification by the mean of morphological and molecular technique and its geographical distribution was mapped based on meta-analysis of the ITS GenBank records.


The surveys of agricultural soils of district Meerut, India, resulted in the isolation of one strain from entomopathogenic nematode labelled CS34 through Galleria baiting technique. Morphological characters and morphometrical analysis indicated that the strain CS34 was closely related to the “glaseri” group of Steinernema spp. The Nblast results indicated that ITS rDNA sequence had no nucleotide differences in comparison with the S. hermaphroditum (JQ687355). However, one variation in the D2–D3 segment of 28S rDNA was observed in comparison with the AY598358. The phylogenetic analysis using ITS and 28S rDNA indicated that the Indian S. hermaphroditum could be placed together with other S. hermaphroditum, with strong posterior probability. Besides, the PCA analysis demonstrated some variability within the test populations. The distribution of S. hermaphroditum based on meta-analysis of the GenBank records showed its presence in the three Asian countries—India, Thailand and Indonesia. The Indian strain of S. hermaphroditum also tested positively for its virulence against three major pests, namely, Galleria mellonella, Helicoverpa armigera, and Spodoptera litura, with resultant which showed good efficacy on the mortalities.


In conclusion, the economy of India is agriculture-based, but there are huge losses due to different insect pests infesting different crops. Steinernema hermaphroditum CS34 is an indigenous species to Indian subcontinent and efforts should be made to evaluate its virulence and pathogenicity against the other agricultural pests hampering productivity throughout the country. This may lead to incorporate S. hermaphroditum strain CS34 as a regular biological control agent against important lepidopteran pest in integrated pest management programs in the future.


28S rDNA Biocontrol Entomopathogenic nematode ITS rDNA Phylogeny 



We thank the Head of the Department of Zoology, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, India, for providing necessary facilities for conducting the experiments.


The authors thank the Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi, India, for providing financial assistance through DST INSPIRE Fellowship/2014/76.

Supplementary material

11686_2019_61_MOESM1_ESM.tif (4 mb)
Phylogenetic analysis of S. hermaphroditum (isolate CS34) and other closely species (TIFF 4081 kb)


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Copyright information

© Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nematology Laboratory, Department of ZoologyChaudhary Charan Singh UniversityMeerutIndia
  2. 2.Green Biotechnologies Research Centre of ExcellenceUniversity of LimpopoSovengaSouth Africa

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